Guide to the Secure Configuration of Fedora

with profile Standard System Security Profile for Fedora
This profile contains rules to ensure standard security baseline of a Fedora system. Regardless of your system's workload all of these checks should pass.
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Fedora. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleStandard System Security Profile for Fedora
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_standard

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:fedoraproject:fedora:36
  • cpe:/o:fedoraproject:fedora:37
  • cpe:/o:fedoraproject:fedora:38
  • cpe:/o:fedoraproject:fedora:39
  • cpe:/o:fedoraproject:fedora:40

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.74

  • draft (as of 2024-06-20)

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. Account and Access Control
    3. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    4. File Permissions and Masks
  2. Services
    1. Network Time Protocol
    2. SSH Server
  3. System Accounting with auditd
    1. Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing
    2. Configure auditd Data Retention

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Fedora   Group contains 39 groups and 76 rules
Group   System Settings   Group contains 24 groups and 32 rules
[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.
Group   Installing and Maintaining Software   Group contains 6 groups and 11 rules
[ref]   The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.
Group   System and Software Integrity   Group contains 4 groups and 9 rules
[ref]   System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.
Group   Software Integrity Checking   Group contains 2 groups and 3 rules
[ref]   Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.
Group   Verify Integrity with RPM   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The RPM package management system includes the ability to verify the integrity of installed packages by comparing the installed files with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the RPM database. Although an attacker could corrupt the RPM database (analogous to attacking the AIDE database as described above), this check can still reveal modification of important files. To list which files on the system differ from what is expected by the RPM database:
$ rpm -qVa
See the man page for rpm to see a complete explanation of each column.

Rule   Verify File Hashes with RPM   [ref]

Without cryptographic integrity protections, system executables and files can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. The RPM package management system can check the hashes of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. To verify that the cryptographic hash of system files and commands matches vendor values, run the following command to list which files on the system have hashes that differ from what is expected by the RPM database:
$ rpm -Va --noconfig | grep '^..5'
If the file was not expected to change, investigate the cause of the change using audit logs or other means. The package can then be reinstalled to restore the file. Run the following command to determine which package owns the file:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
          
The package can be reinstalled from a dnf repository using the command:
$ sudo dnf reinstall PACKAGENAME
          
Alternatively, the package can be reinstalled from trusted media using the command:
$ sudo rpm -Uvh PACKAGENAME
          
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of packages present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of installed packages can be affected.
Rationale:
The hashes of important files like system executables should match the information given by the RPM database. Executables with erroneous hashes could be a sign of nefarious activity on the system.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rpm_verify_hashes
References:
cis-csc11, 2, 3, 9
cjis5.10.4.1
cobit5APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02
cui3.3.8, 3.4.1
disaCCI-000366, CCI-001749
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i)
isa-62443-20094.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4
isa-62443-2013SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4
nistCM-6(d), CM-6(c), SI-7, SI-7(1), SI-7(6), AU-9(3)
nist-csfPR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1
pcidssReq-11.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227
pcidss411.5.2

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: 'Set fact: Package manager reinstall command'
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: dnf reinstall -y
  when: ansible_distribution in [ "Fedora", "RedHat", "CentOS", "OracleLinux" ]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: 'Set fact: Package manager reinstall command (zypper)'
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: zypper in -f -y
  when: ansible_distribution == "SLES"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: Read files with incorrect hash
  command: rpm -Va --nodeps --nosize --nomtime --nordev --nocaps --nolinkto --nouser
    --nogroup --nomode --noghost --noconfig
  register: files_with_incorrect_hash
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: files_with_incorrect_hash.rc > 1
  check_mode: false
  when: (package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: Create list of packages
  command: rpm -qf "{{ item }}"
  with_items: '{{ files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines | map(''regex_findall'',
    ''^[.]+[5]+.* (\/.*)'', ''\1'') | map(''join'') | select(''match'', ''(\/.*)'')
    | list | unique }}'
  register: list_of_packages
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  when:
  - files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines is defined
  - (files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: Reinstall packages of files with incorrect hash
  command: '{{ package_manager_reinstall_cmd }} ''{{ item }}'''
  with_items: '{{ list_of_packages.results | map(attribute=''stdout_lines'') | list
    | unique }}'
  when:
  - files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines is defined
  - (package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined and (files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines
    | length > 0))
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes


# Find which files have incorrect hash (not in /etc, because of the system related config files) and then get files names
files_with_incorrect_hash="$(rpm -Va --noconfig | grep -E '^..5' | awk '{print $NF}' )"

if [ -n "$files_with_incorrect_hash" ]; then
    # From files names get package names and change newline to space, because rpm writes each package to new line
    packages_to_reinstall="$(rpm -qf $files_with_incorrect_hash | tr '\n' ' ')"

    
    dnf reinstall -y $packages_to_reinstall
    
fi

Rule   Verify and Correct File Permissions with RPM   [ref]

The RPM package management system can check file access permissions of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. Verify that the file permissions of system files and commands match vendor values. Check the file permissions with the following command:
$ sudo rpm -Va | awk '{ if (substr($0,2,1)=="M") print $NF }'
Output indicates files that do not match vendor defaults. After locating a file with incorrect permissions, run the following command to determine which package owns it:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
          

Next, run the following command to reset its permissions to the correct values:
$ sudo rpm --setperms PACKAGENAME
          
Warning:  Profiles may require that specific files have stricter file permissions than defined by the vendor. Such files will be reported as a finding and need to be evaluated according to your policy and deployment environment.
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of packages present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of installed packages can be affected.
Rationale:
Permissions on system binaries and configuration files that are too generous could allow an unauthorized user to gain privileges that they should not have. The permissions set by the vendor should be maintained. Any deviations from this baseline should be investigated.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rpm_verify_permissions
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 6, 9
cjis5.10.4.1
cobit5APO01.06, APO11.04, BAI03.05, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, MEA02.01
cui3.3.8, 3.4.1
disaCCI-001493, CCI-001494, CCI-001495, CCI-001496
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i)
isa-62443-20094.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 2.1, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 5.2, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-003-8 R6, CIP-007-3 R4, CIP-007-3 R4.1, CIP-007-3 R4.2
nistCM-6(d), CM-6(c), SI-7, SI-7(1), SI-7(6), AU-9(3), CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-1
pcidssReq-11.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000256-GPOS-00097, SRG-OS-000257-GPOS-00098, SRG-OS-000258-GPOS-00099, SRG-OS-000278-GPOS-00108
pcidss411.5.2

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read list of files with incorrect permissions
  command: rpm -Va --nodeps --nosignature --nofiledigest --nosize --nomtime --nordev
    --nocaps --nolinkto --nouser --nogroup
  register: files_with_incorrect_permissions
  failed_when: files_with_incorrect_permissions.rc > 1
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_permissions

- name: Create list of packages
  command: rpm -qf "{{ item }}"
  with_items: '{{ files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines | map(''regex_findall'',
    ''^[.]+[M]+.* (\/.*)'', ''\1'') | map(''join'') | select(''match'', ''(\/.*)'')
    | list | unique }}'
  register: list_of_packages
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  when: (files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_permissions

- name: Correct file permissions with RPM
  command: rpm --setperms '{{ item }}'
  with_items: '{{ list_of_packages.results | map(attribute=''stdout_lines'') | list
    | unique }}'
  when: (files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_permissions

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

# Declare array to hold set of RPM packages we need to correct permissions for
declare -A SETPERMS_RPM_DICT

# Create a list of files on the system having permissions different from what
# is expected by the RPM database
readarray -t FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS < <(rpm -Va --nofiledigest | awk '{ if (substr($0,2,1)=="M") print $NF }')

for FILE_PATH in "${FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS[@]}"
do
        # NOTE: some files maybe controlled by more then one package
        readarray -t RPM_PACKAGES < <(rpm -qf "${FILE_PATH}")
        for RPM_PACKAGE in "${RPM_PACKAGES[@]}"
        do
                # Use an associative array to store packages as it's keys, not having to care about duplicates.
                SETPERMS_RPM_DICT["$RPM_PACKAGE"]=1
        done
done

# For each of the RPM packages left in the list -- reset its permissions to the
# correct values
for RPM_PACKAGE in "${!SETPERMS_RPM_DICT[@]}"
do
	rpm --restore "${RPM_PACKAGE}"
done
Group   Verify Integrity with AIDE   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   AIDE conducts integrity checks by comparing information about files with previously-gathered information. Ideally, the AIDE database is created immediately after initial system configuration, and then again after any software update. AIDE is highly configurable, with further configuration information located in /usr/share/doc/aide-VERSION .

Rule   Build and Test AIDE Database   [ref]

Run the following command to generate a new database:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --init
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/sbin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.
Rationale:
For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_build_database
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.10.1.3
cobit5APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06
isa-62443-20094.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4
isa-62443-2013SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3
nistCM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3
pcidssReq-11.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199
anssiR76, R79
pcidss411.5.2

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Ensure AIDE Is Installed
  ansible.builtin.package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
  - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Build and Test AIDE Database
  ansible.builtin.command: /usr/sbin/aide --init
  changed_when: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Check Whether the Stock AIDE Database Exists
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
  register: aide_database_stat
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Stage AIDE Database
  ansible.builtin.copy:
    src: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
    dest: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
    backup: true
    remote_src: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - (aide_database_stat.stat.exists is defined and aide_database_stat.stat.exists)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    dnf install -y "aide"
fi

/usr/sbin/aide --init
/bin/cp -p /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   System Cryptographic Policies   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   Linux has the capability to centrally configure cryptographic polices. The command update-crypto-policies is used to set the policy applicable for the various cryptographic back-ends, such as SSL/TLS libraries. The configured cryptographic policies will be the default policy used by these backends unless the application user configures them otherwise. When the system has been configured to use the centralized cryptographic policies, the administrator is assured that any application that utilizes the supported backends will follow a policy that adheres to the configured profile. Currently the supported backends are:
  • GnuTLS library
  • OpenSSL library
  • NSS library
  • OpenJDK
  • Libkrb5
  • BIND
  • OpenSSH
Applications and languages which rely on any of these backends will follow the system policies as well. Examples are apache httpd, nginx, php, and others.

Rule   Configure BIND to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. BIND is supported by crypto policy, but the BIND configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, ensure that the /etc/named.conf includes the appropriate configuration: In the options section of /etc/named.conf, make sure that the following line is not commented out or superseded by later includes: include "/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/bind.config";
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the BIND service violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_bind_crypto_policy
References:
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1
nistSC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3)
os-srgSRG-OS-000423-GPOS-00187, SRG-OS-000426-GPOS-00190

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q bind; then

function remediate_bind_crypto_policy() {
	CONFIG_FILE="/etc/named.conf"
	if test -f "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
		sed -i 's|options {|&\n\tinclude "/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/bind.config";|' "$CONFIG_FILE"
		return 0
	else
		echo "Aborting remediation as '$CONFIG_FILE' was not even found." >&2
		return 1
	fi
}

remediate_bind_crypto_policy

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure System Cryptography Policy   [ref]

To configure the system cryptography policy to use ciphers only from the DEFAULT policy, run the following command:
$ sudo update-crypto-policies --set DEFAULT
         
The rule checks if settings for selected crypto policy are configured as expected. Configuration files in the /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends are either symlinks to correct files provided by Crypto-policies package or they are regular files in case crypto policy customizations are applied. Crypto policies may be customized by crypto policy modules, in which case it is delimited from the base policy using a colon.
Warning:  The system needs to be rebooted for these changes to take effect.
Warning:  System Crypto Modules must be provided by a vendor that undergoes FIPS-140 certifications. FIPS-140 is applicable to all Federal agencies that use cryptographic-based security systems to protect sensitive information in computer and telecommunication systems (including voice systems) as defined in Section 5131 of the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, Public Law 104-106. This standard shall be used in designing and implementing cryptographic modules that Federal departments and agencies operate or are operated for them under contract. See https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/NIST.FIPS.140-2.pdf To meet this, the system has to have cryptographic software provided by a vendor that has undergone this certification. This means providing documentation, test results, design information, and independent third party review by an accredited lab. While open source software is capable of meeting this, it does not meet FIPS-140 unless the vendor submits to this process.
Rationale:
Centralized cryptographic policies simplify applying secure ciphers across an operating system and the applications that run on that operating system. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_crypto_policy
References:
hipaa164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii)
ism1446
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1
nistAC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3)
osppFCS_COP.1(1), FCS_COP.1(2), FCS_COP.1(3), FCS_COP.1(4), FCS_CKM.1, FCS_CKM.2, FCS_TLSC_EXT.1
os-srgSRG-OS-000396-GPOS-00176, SRG-OS-000393-GPOS-00173, SRG-OS-000394-GPOS-00174
pcidss42.2.7

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_system_crypto_policy # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_system_crypto_policy: !!str DEFAULT
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure System Cryptography Policy
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/crypto-policies/config
    regexp: ^(?!#)(\S+)$
    line: '{{ var_system_crypto_policy }}'
    create: true
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.7
  - configure_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that Crypto Policy is Set (runtime)
  command: /usr/bin/update-crypto-policies --set {{ var_system_crypto_policy }}
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.7
  - configure_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    systemd:
      units:
        - name: configure-crypto-policy.service
          enabled: true
          contents: |
            [Unit]
            Before=kubelet.service
            [Service]
            Type=oneshot
            ExecStart=update-crypto-policies --set {{.var_system_crypto_policy}}
            RemainAfterExit=yes
            [Install]
            WantedBy=multi-user.target


var_system_crypto_policy='DEFAULT'


stderr_of_call=$(update-crypto-policies --set ${var_system_crypto_policy} 2>&1 > /dev/null)
rc=$?

if test "$rc" = 127; then
	echo "$stderr_of_call" >&2
	echo "Make sure that the script is installed on the remediated system." >&2
	echo "See output of the 'dnf provides update-crypto-policies' command" >&2
	echo "to see what package to (re)install" >&2

	false  # end with an error code
elif test "$rc" != 0; then
	echo "Error invoking the update-crypto-policies script: $stderr_of_call" >&2
	false  # end with an error code
fi

Rule   Configure Kerberos to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. Kerberos is supported by crypto policy, but it's configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings for Kerberos are configured correctly, examine that there is a symlink at /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies targeting /etc/cypto-policies/back-ends/krb5.config. If the symlink exists, Kerberos is configured to use the system-wide crypto policy settings.
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of Kerberos violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_kerberos_crypto_policy
References:
ism0418, 1055, 1402
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1
nistSC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3)
os-srgSRG-OS-000120-GPOS-00061

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:configure
- name: Configure Kerberos to use System Crypto Policy
  file:
    src: /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/krb5.config
    path: /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies
    state: link
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - configure_kerberos_crypto_policy
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - reboot_required

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:configure

rm -f /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies
ln -s /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/krb5.config /etc/krb5.conf.d/crypto-policies

Rule   Configure Libreswan to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. Libreswan is supported by system crypto policy, but the Libreswan configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, ensure that the /etc/ipsec.conf includes the appropriate configuration file. In /etc/ipsec.conf, make sure that the following line is not commented out or superseded by later includes: include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the Libreswan service violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_libreswan_crypto_policy
References:
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1
nistCM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3)
osppFCS_IPSEC_EXT.1.4, FCS_IPSEC_EXT.1.6
pcidssReq-2.2
os-srgSRG-OS-000033-GPOS-00014

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Configure Libreswan to use System Crypto Policy
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/ipsec.conf
    line: include /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config
    create: true
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2
  - configure_libreswan_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy


function remediate_libreswan_crypto_policy() {
    CONFIG_FILE="/etc/ipsec.conf"
    if ! grep -qP "^\s*include\s+/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config\s*(?:#.*)?$" "$CONFIG_FILE" ; then
        # the file might not end with a new line
        echo -e '\ninclude /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/libreswan.config' >> "$CONFIG_FILE"
    fi
    return 0
}

remediate_libreswan_crypto_policy

Rule   Configure OpenSSL library to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. OpenSSL is supported by crypto policy, but the OpenSSL configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, you have to examine the OpenSSL config file available under /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf. This file has the ini format, and it enables crypto policy support if there is a [ crypto_policy ] section that contains the .include = /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config directive.
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the Java runtime violates expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_openssl_crypto_policy
References:
disaCCI-001453
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1
nistAC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3)
pcidssReq-2.2
os-srgSRG-OS-000250-GPOS-00093

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:unknown
- name: Configure OpenSSL library to use System Crypto Policy - Search for crypto_policy
    Section
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths: /etc/pki/tls
    patterns: openssl.cnf
    contains: ^\s*\[\s*crypto_policy\s*]
  register: test_crypto_policy_group
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2
  - configure_openssl_crypto_policy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

- name: Configure OpenSSL library to use System Crypto Policy - Search for crypto_policy
    Section Together With .include Directive
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths: /etc/pki/tls
    patterns: openssl.cnf
    contains: ^\s*\.include\s*(?:=\s*)?/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config$
  register: test_crypto_policy_include_directive
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2
  - configure_openssl_crypto_policy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

- name: Configure OpenSSL library to use System Crypto Policy - Add .include Line
    for opensslcnf.config File in crypto_policy Section
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    insertafter: ^\s*\[\s*crypto_policy\s*]\s*
    line: .include = /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config
    path: /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
  when:
  - test_crypto_policy_group.matched > 0
  - test_crypto_policy_include_directive.matched == 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2
  - configure_openssl_crypto_policy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

- name: Configure OpenSSL library to use System Crypto Policy - Add crypto_policy
    Section With .include for opensslcnf.config File
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    line: |-
      [crypto_policy]
      .include = /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config
    path: /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
  when: test_crypto_policy_group.matched == 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2
  - configure_openssl_crypto_policy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy


OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION='[ crypto_policy ]'
OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION_REGEX='\[\s*crypto_policy\s*\]'

OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION='.include = /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config'

OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION_REGEX='^\s*\.include\s*(?:=\s*)?/etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/opensslcnf.config$'



  


function remediate_openssl_crypto_policy() {
	CONFIG_FILE=/etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
	if test -f "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
		if ! grep -q "^\\s*$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION_REGEX" "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
			printf '\n%s\n\n%s' "$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION" "$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION" >> "$CONFIG_FILE"
			return 0
		elif ! grep -q "^\\s*$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION_REGEX" "$CONFIG_FILE"; then
			sed -i "s|$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_SECTION_REGEX|&\\n\\n$OPENSSL_CRYPTO_POLICY_INCLUSION\\n|" "$CONFIG_FILE"
			return 0
		fi
	else
		echo "Aborting remediation as '$CONFIG_FILE' was not even found." >&2
		return 1
	fi
}

remediate_openssl_crypto_policy

Rule   Configure SSH to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. SSH is supported by crypto policy, but the SSH configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, ensure that the CRYPTO_POLICY variable is either commented or not set at all in the /etc/sysconfig/sshd.
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the SSH service violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_ssh_crypto_policy
References:
disaCCI-001453
hipaa164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii)
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1
nistAC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13
osppFCS_SSH_EXT.1, FCS_SSHS_EXT.1, FCS_SSHC_EXT.1
pcidssReq-2.2
os-srgSRG-OS-000250-GPOS-00093
pcidss42.2.7

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Configure SSH to use System Crypto Policy
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/sysconfig/sshd
    state: absent
    regexp: (?i)^\s*CRYPTO_POLICY.*$
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.7
  - configure_ssh_crypto_policy
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required


SSH_CONF="/etc/sysconfig/sshd"

sed -i "/^\s*CRYPTO_POLICY.*$/Id" $SSH_CONF
Group   Updating Software   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The dnf command line tool is used to install and update software packages. The system also provides a graphical software update tool in the System menu, in the Administration submenu, called Software Update.

Fedora systems contain an installed software catalog called the RPM database, which records metadata of installed packages. Consistently using dnf or the graphical Software Update for all software installation allows for insight into the current inventory of installed software on the system.

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main dnf Configuration   [ref]

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure dnf to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/dnf/dnf.conf in the [main] section:
gpgcheck=1
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
References:
cis-csc11, 2, 3, 9
cjis5.10.4.1
cobit5APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02
cui3.4.8
disaCCI-001749
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i)
isa-62443-20094.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4
isa-62443-2013SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4
nistCM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b)
nist-csfPR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1
osppFPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2
pcidssReq-6.2
os-srgSRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153
anssiR59
pcidss46.3.3

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/dnf/dnf.conf
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    no_extra_spaces: true
    create: false
  when: '"dnf" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q dnf; then

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^gpgcheck")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^gpgcheck\\>" "/etc/dnf/dnf.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^gpgcheck\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/dnf/dnf.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/dnf/dnf.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/dnf/dnf.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/dnf/dnf.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/dnf/dnf.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for All dnf Package Repositories   [ref]

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:
gpgcheck=0
Rationale:
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA)."
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
References:
cis-csc11, 2, 3, 9
cjis5.10.4.1
cobit5APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02
cui3.4.8
disaCCI-001749
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i)
isa-62443-20094.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4
isa-62443-2013SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4
nistCM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b)
nist-csfPR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1
osppFPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2
pcidssReq-6.2
os-srgSRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153
anssiR59
pcidss46.3.3

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Grep for dnf repo section names
  shell: |
    set -o pipefail
    grep -HEr '^\[.+\]' -r /etc/yum.repos.d/
  register: repo_grep_results
  failed_when: repo_grep_results.rc not in [0, 1]
  changed_when: false
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - enable_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set gpgcheck=1 for each dnf repo
  ini_file:
    path: '{{ item[0] }}'
    section: '{{ item[1] }}'
    option: gpgcheck
    value: '1'
    no_extra_spaces: true
  loop: '{{ repo_grep_results.stdout |regex_findall( ''(.+\.repo):\[(.+)\]\n?'' )
    if repo_grep_results is not skipped else [] }}'
  when: repo_grep_results is not skipped
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - enable_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed


sed -i 's/gpgcheck\s*=.*/gpgcheck=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/*
Group   Account and Access Control   Group contains 8 groups and 14 rules
[ref]   In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Fedora.
Group   Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.
Warning:  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
Warning:  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at https://fossies.org/linux/Linux-PAM-docs/doc/sag/Linux-PAM_SAG.pdf.
Group   Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   Group contains 4 groups and 12 rules
[ref]   Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.
Group   Set Account Expiration Parameters   Group contains 1 rule
Group   Set Password Expiration Parameters   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   The file /etc/login.defs controls several password-related settings. Programs such as passwd, su, and login consult /etc/login.defs to determine behavior with regard to password aging, expiration warnings, and length. See the man page login.defs(5) for more information.

Users should be forced to change their passwords, in order to decrease the utility of compromised passwords. However, the need to change passwords often should be balanced against the risk that users will reuse or write down passwords if forced to change them too often. Forcing password changes every 90-360 days, depending on the environment, is recommended. Set the appropriate value as PASS_MAX_DAYS and apply it to existing accounts with the -M flag.

The PASS_MIN_DAYS (-m) setting prevents password changes for 7 days after the first change, to discourage password cycling. If you use this setting, train users to contact an administrator for an emergency password change in case a new password becomes compromised. The PASS_WARN_AGE (-W) setting gives users 7 days of warnings at login time that their passwords are about to expire.

For example, for each existing human user USER, expiration parameters could be adjusted to a 180 day maximum password age, 7 day minimum password age, and 7 day warning period with the following command:
$ sudo chage -M 180 -m 7 -W 7 USER
Group   Verify Proper Storage and Existence of Password Hashes   Group contains 4 rules
[ref]   By default, password hashes for local accounts are stored in the second field (colon-separated) in /etc/shadow. This file should be readable only by processes running with root credentials, preventing users from casually accessing others' password hashes and attempting to crack them. However, it remains possible to misconfigure the system and store password hashes in world-readable files such as /etc/passwd, or to even store passwords themselves in plaintext on the system. Using system-provided tools for password change/creation should allow administrators to avoid such misconfiguration.

Rule   Verify All Account Password Hashes are Shadowed   [ref]

If any password hashes are stored in /etc/passwd (in the second field, instead of an x or *), the cause of this misconfiguration should be investigated. The account should have its password reset and the hash should be properly stored, or the account should be deleted entirely.
Rationale:
The hashes for all user account passwords should be stored in the file /etc/shadow and never in /etc/passwd, which is readable by all users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_all_shadowed
References:
cis-csc1, 12, 15, 16, 5
cjis5.5.2
cobit5DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10
cui3.5.10
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1
ism1410
iso27001-2013A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3
nistIA-5(h), CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7
pcidssReq-8.2.1
pcidss48.3.2

Rule   All GIDs referenced in /etc/passwd must be defined in /etc/group   [ref]

Add a group to the system for each GID referenced without a corresponding group.
Rationale:
If a user is assigned the Group Identifier (GID) of a group not existing on the system, and a group with the Group Identifier (GID) is subsequently created, the user may have unintended rights to any files associated with the group.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_gid_passwd_group_same
References:
cis-csc1, 12, 15, 16, 5
cjis5.5.2
cobit5DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10
disaCCI-000764
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1
iso27001-2013A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3
nistIA-2, CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7
pcidssReq-8.5.a
os-srgSRG-OS-000104-GPOS-00051
pcidss48.2.2

Rule   Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password   [ref]

If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. Remove any instances of the nullok in /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth to prevent logins with empty passwords.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. Note that this rule is not applicable for systems running within a container. Having user with empty password within a container is not considered a risk, because it should not be possible to directly login into a container anyway.
Rationale:
If an account has an empty password, anyone could log in and run commands with the privileges of that account. Accounts with empty passwords should never be used in operational environments.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_empty_passwords
References:
cis-csc1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cjis5.5.2
cobit5APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.10
cui3.1.1, 3.1.5
disaCCI-000366
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii)
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 5.2
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nistIA-5(1)(a), IA-5(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.DS-5
osppFIA_UAU.1
pcidssReq-8.2.3
os-srgSRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227
pcidss48.3.1

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Check if system relies on
    authselect
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.1
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Remediate using authselect
  block:

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Check integrity of authselect
      current profile
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect check
    register: result_authselect_check_cmd
    changed_when: false
    failed_when: false

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Informative message based
      on the authselect integrity check result
    ansible.builtin.assert:
      that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
      fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not
        selected or the selected profile is not intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
        is available.
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
      success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Get authselect current features
    ansible.builtin.shell:
      cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
    register: result_authselect_features
    changed_when: false
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Ensure "without-nullok"
      feature is enabled using authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect enable-feature without-nullok
    register: result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("without-nullok")

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Ensure authselect changes
      are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is not skipped
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is success
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.1
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Remediate directly editing
    PAM files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    dest: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: nullok
  loop:
  - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.1
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords
  - no_reboot_needed

---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,%23%20Generated%20by%20authselect%20on%20Sat%20Oct%2027%2014%3A59%3A36%202018%0A%23%20Do%20not%20modify%20this%20file%20manually.%0A%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_env.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_faildelay.so%20delay%3D2000000%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_fprintd.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20try_first_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet_success%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20forward_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3C%201000%20quiet%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3Dbad%20success%3Dok%20user_unknown%3Dignore%5D%20pam_sss.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_permit.so%0A%0Apassword%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_pwquality.so%20try_first_pass%20local_users_only%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20sha512%20shadow%20try_first_pass%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_keyinit.so%20revoke%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_limits.so%0A-session%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_systemd.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20%5Bsuccess%3D1%20default%3Dignore%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20service%20in%20crond%20quiet%20use_uid%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%0A
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
        overwrite: true
      - contents:
          source: data:,%23%20Generated%20by%20authselect%20on%20Sat%20Oct%2027%2014%3A59%3A36%202018%0A%23%20Do%20not%20modify%20this%20file%20manually.%0A%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_env.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_faildelay.so%20delay%3D2000000%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_fprintd.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20try_first_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet_success%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20forward_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3C%201000%20quiet%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3Dbad%20success%3Dok%20user_unknown%3Dignore%5D%20pam_sss.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_permit.so%0A%0Apassword%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_pwquality.so%20try_first_pass%20local_users_only%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20sha512%20shadow%20try_first_pass%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_keyinit.so%20revoke%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_limits.so%0A-session%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_systemd.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20%5Bsuccess%3D1%20default%3Dignore%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20service%20in%20crond%20quiet%20use_uid%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%0A
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        overwrite: true

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature without-nullok

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"
fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"
fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Verify No netrc Files Exist   [ref]

The .netrc files contain login information used to auto-login into FTP servers and reside in the user's home directory. These files may contain unencrypted passwords to remote FTP servers making them susceptible to access by unauthorized users and should not be used. Any .netrc files should be removed.
Rationale:
Unencrypted passwords for remote FTP servers may be stored in .netrc files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_netrc_files
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cobit5DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, DSS06.10
disaCCI-000196
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7
iso27001-2013A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R1.3, CIP-003-8 R3, CIP-003-8 R3.1, CIP-003-8 R3.2, CIP-003-8 R3.3, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3
nistIA-5(h), IA-5(1)(c), CM-6(a), IA-5(7)
nist-csfPR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.PT-3
Group   Restrict Root Logins   Group contains 4 rules
[ref]   Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

Rule   Verify Only Root Has UID 0   [ref]

If any account other than root has a UID of 0, this misconfiguration should be investigated and the accounts other than root should be removed or have their UID changed.
If the account is associated with system commands or applications the UID should be changed to one greater than "0" but less than "1000." Otherwise assign a UID greater than "1000" that has not already been assigned.
Rationale:
An account has root authority if it has a UID of 0. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account. Proper configuration of sudo is recommended to afford multiple system administrators access to root privileges in an accountable manner.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_no_uid_except_zero
References:
cis-csc1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cobit5APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.10
cui3.1.1, 3.1.5
disaCCI-000366
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 5.2
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3
nistIA-2, AC-6(5), IA-4(b)
nist-csfPR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.DS-5
pcidssReq-8.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227
pcidss48.2.1

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get all /etc/passwd file entries
  getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(5)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - NIST-800-53-IA-4(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.1
  - accounts_no_uid_except_zero
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock the password of the user accounts other than root with uid 0
  command: passwd -l {{ item.key }}
  loop: '{{ getent_passwd | dict2items | rejectattr(''key'', ''search'', ''root'')
    | list }}'
  when: item.value.1  == '0'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(5)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - NIST-800-53-IA-4(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.1
  - accounts_no_uid_except_zero
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

awk -F: '$3 == 0 && $1 != "root" { print $1 }' /etc/passwd | xargs --no-run-if-empty --max-lines=1 passwd -l

Rule   Direct root Logins Not Allowed   [ref]

To further limit access to the root account, administrators can disable root logins at the console by editing the /etc/securetty file. This file lists all devices the root user is allowed to login to. If the file does not exist at all, the root user can login through any communication device on the system, whether via the console or via a raw network interface. This is dangerous as user can login to the system as root via Telnet, which sends the password in plain text over the network. By default, Fedora's /etc/securetty file only allows the root user to login at the console physically attached to the system. To prevent root from logging in, remove the contents of this file. To prevent direct root logins, remove the contents of this file by typing the following command:
$ sudo echo > /etc/securetty
Warning:  This rule only checks the /etc/securetty file existence and its content. If you need to restrict user access using the /etc/securetty file, make sure the pam_securetty.so PAM module is properly enabled in relevant PAM files.
Rationale:
Disabling direct root logins ensures proper accountability and multifactor authentication to privileged accounts. Users will first login, then escalate to privileged (root) access via su / sudo. This is required for FISMA Low and FISMA Moderate systems.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_direct_root_logins
References:
cis-csc1, 12, 15, 16, 5
cobit5DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10
cui3.1.1, 3.1.6
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii)
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1
iso27001-2013A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3
nistIA-2, CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7
anssiR33
pcidss48.6.1

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Direct root Logins Not Allowed
  copy:
    dest: /etc/securetty
    content: ''
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_direct_root_logins
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,
        mode: 0600
        path: /etc/securetty
        overwrite: true

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

echo > /etc/securetty

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Restrict Serial Port Root Logins   [ref]

To restrict root logins on serial ports, ensure lines of this form do not appear in /etc/securetty:
ttyS0
ttyS1
Rationale:
Preventing direct root login to serial port interfaces helps ensure accountability for actions taken on the systems using the root account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_restrict_serial_port_logins
References:
cis-csc12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cobit5APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02
cui3.1.1, 3.1.5
disaCCI-000770
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii)
isa-62443-20094.3.3.7.3
isa-62443-2013SR 2.1, SR 5.2
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2
nistAC-6, CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-4, PR.DS-5

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Restrict Serial Port Root Logins
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/securetty
    regexp: ttyS[0-9]
    state: absent
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_serial_port_logins
  - restrict_strategy

sed -i '/ttyS/d' /etc/securetty
Group   Secure Session Configuration Files for Login Accounts   Group contains 1 group and 1 rule
[ref]   When a user logs into a Unix account, the system configures the user's session by reading a number of files. Many of these files are located in the user's home directory, and may have weak permissions as a result of user error or misconfiguration. If an attacker can modify or even read certain types of account configuration information, they can often gain full access to the affected user's account. Therefore, it is important to test and correct configuration file permissions for interactive accounts, particularly those of privileged users such as root or system administrators.
Group   Ensure that No Dangerous Directories Exist in Root's Path   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The active path of the root account can be obtained by starting a new root shell and running:
# echo $PATH
This will produce a colon-separated list of directories in the path.

Certain path elements could be considered dangerous, as they could lead to root executing unknown or untrusted programs, which could contain malicious code. Since root may sometimes work inside untrusted directories, the . character, which represents the current directory, should never be in the root path, nor should any directory which can be written to by an unprivileged or semi-privileged (system) user.

It is a good practice for administrators to always execute privileged commands by typing the full path to the command.

Rule   Ensure that Root's Path Does Not Include World or Group-Writable Directories   [ref]

For each element in root's path, run:
# ls -ld DIR
         
and ensure that write permissions are disabled for group and other.
Rationale:
Such entries increase the risk that root could execute code provided by unprivileged users, and potentially malicious code.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_root_path_dirs_no_write
References:
cis-csc11, 3, 9
cobit5BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05
disaCCI-000366
isa-62443-20094.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3
isa-62443-2013SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4
nistCM-6(a), CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.IP-1

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get root paths which are not symbolic links
  stat:
    path: '{{ item }}'
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  register: root_paths
  with_items: '{{ ansible_env.PATH.split('':'') }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_root_path_dirs_no_write
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Disable writability to root directories
  file:
    path: '{{ item.item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
  with_items: '{{ root_paths.results }}'
  when:
  - root_paths.results is defined
  - item.stat.exists
  - not item.stat.islnk
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_root_path_dirs_no_write
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Network Configuration and Firewalls   Group contains 3 groups and 2 rules
[ref]   Most systems must be connected to a network of some sort, and this brings with it the substantial risk of network attack. This section discusses the security impact of decisions about networking which must be made when configuring a system.

This section also discusses firewalls, network access controls, and other network security frameworks, which allow system-level rules to be written that can limit an attackers' ability to connect to your system. These rules can specify that network traffic should be allowed or denied from certain IP addresses, hosts, and networks. The rules can also specify which of the system's network services are available to particular hosts or networks.
Group   firewalld   Group contains 2 groups and 2 rules
[ref]   The dynamic firewall daemon firewalld provides a dynamically managed firewall with support for network “zones” to assign a level of trust to a network and its associated connections and interfaces. It has support for IPv4 and IPv6 firewall settings. It supports Ethernet bridges and has a separation of runtime and permanent configuration options. It also has an interface for services or applications to add firewall rules directly.
A graphical configuration tool, firewall-config, is used to configure firewalld, which in turn uses iptables tool to communicate with Netfilter in the kernel which implements packet filtering.
The firewall service provided by firewalld is dynamic rather than static because changes to the configuration can be made at anytime and are immediately implemented. There is no need to save or apply the changes. No unintended disruption of existing network connections occurs as no part of the firewall has to be reloaded.
Group   Inspect and Activate Default firewalld Rules   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Firewalls can be used to separate networks into different zones based on the level of trust the user has decided to place on the devices and traffic within that network. NetworkManager informs firewalld to which zone an interface belongs. An interface's assigned zone can be changed by NetworkManager or via the firewall-config tool.
The zone settings in /etc/firewalld/ are a range of preset settings which can be quickly applied to a network interface. These are the zones provided by firewalld sorted according to the default trust level of the zones from untrusted to trusted:
  • drop

    Any incoming network packets are dropped, there is no reply. Only outgoing network connections are possible.

  • block

    Any incoming network connections are rejected with an icmp-host-prohibited message for IPv4 and icmp6-adm-prohibited for IPv6. Only network connections initiated from within the system are possible.

  • public

    For use in public areas. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • external

    For use on external networks with masquerading enabled especially for routers. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • dmz

    For computers in your demilitarized zone that are publicly-accessible with limited access to your internal network. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • work

    For use in work areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • home

    For use in home areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • internal

    For use on internal networks. You mostly trust the other computers on the networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • trusted

    All network connections are accepted.


It is possible to designate one of these zones to be the default zone. When interface connections are added to NetworkManager, they are assigned to the default zone. On installation, the default zone in firewalld is set to be the public zone.
To find out all the settings of a zone, for example the public zone, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
Example output of this command might look like the following:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
public
  interfaces:
  services: mdns dhcpv6-client ssh
  ports:
  forward-ports:
  icmp-blocks: source-quench
To view the network zones currently active, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
The following listing displays the result of this command on common Fedora system:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
amanda-client bacula bacula-client dhcp dhcpv6 dhcpv6-client dns ftp
high-availability http https imaps ipp ipp-client ipsec kerberos kpasswd
ldap ldaps libvirt libvirt-tls mdns mountd ms-wbt mysql nfs ntp openvpn
pmcd pmproxy pmwebapi pmwebapis pop3s postgresql proxy-dhcp radius rpc-bind
samba samba-client smtp ssh telnet tftp tftp-client transmission-client
vnc-server wbem-https
Finally to view the network zones that will be active after the next firewalld service reload, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service --permanent

Rule   Verify firewalld Enabled   [ref]

The firewalld service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld.service
Rationale:
Access control methods provide the ability to enhance system security posture by restricting services and known good IP addresses and address ranges. This prevents connections from unknown hosts and protocols.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_firewalld_enabled
References:
cis-csc11, 3, 9
cobit5BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05
cui3.1.3, 3.4.7
disaCCI-000366, CCI-000382, CCI-002314
isa-62443-20094.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3
isa-62443-2013SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R4, CIP-003-8 R5, CIP-004-6 R3
nistAC-4, CM-7(b), CA-3(5), SC-7(21), CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.IP-1
osppFMT_SMF_EXT.1
os-srgSRG-OS-000096-GPOS-00050, SRG-OS-000297-GPOS-00115, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00231, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00232
pcidss41.2.1


[customizations.services]
enabled = ["firewalld"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CA-3(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(21)
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_firewalld_enabled

- name: Verify firewalld Enabled - Enable service firewalld
  block:

  - name: Gather the package facts
    package_facts:
      manager: auto

  - name: Verify firewalld Enabled - Enable Service firewalld
    ansible.builtin.systemd:
      name: firewalld
      enabled: true
      state: started
      masked: false
    when:
    - '"firewalld" in ansible_facts.packages'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"firewalld" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CA-3(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(21)
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_firewalld_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include enable_firewalld

class enable_firewalld {
  service {'firewalld':
    enable => true,
    ensure => 'running',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && { rpm --quiet -q firewalld; }; then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" unmask 'firewalld.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'firewalld.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'firewalld.service'

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Strengthen the Default Ruleset   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The default rules can be strengthened. The system scripts that activate the firewall rules expect them to be defined in configuration files under the /etc/firewalld/services and /etc/firewalld/zones directories.

The following recommendations describe how to strengthen the default ruleset configuration file. An alternative to editing this configuration file is to create a shell script that makes calls to the firewall-cmd program to load in rules under the /etc/firewalld/services and /etc/firewalld/zones directories.

Instructions apply to both unless otherwise noted. Language and address conventions for regular firewalld rules are used throughout this section.
Warning:  The program firewall-config allows additional services to penetrate the default firewall rules and automatically adjusts the firewalld ruleset(s).

Rule   Set Default firewalld Zone for Incoming Packets   [ref]

To set the default zone to drop for the built-in default zone which processes incoming IPv4 and IPv6 packets, modify the following line in /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf to be:
DefaultZone=drop
Warning:  To prevent denying any access to the system, automatic remediation of this control is not available. Remediation must be automated as a component of machine provisioning, or followed manually as outlined above.
Rationale:
In firewalld the default zone is applied only after all the applicable rules in the table are examined for a match. Setting the default zone to drop implements proper design for a firewall, i.e. any packets which are not explicitly permitted should not be accepted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_set_firewalld_default_zone
References:
cis-csc11, 14, 3, 9
cjis5.10.1
cobit5BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06
cui3.1.3, 3.4.7, 3.13.6
disaCCI-000366
isa-62443-20094.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6
ism1416
iso27001-2013A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2
nistCA-3(5), CM-7(b), SC-7(23), CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.IP-1, PR.PT-3
osppFMT_MOF_EXT.1
pcidssReq-1.4
os-srgSRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227
pcidss41.3.1
Group   File Permissions and Masks   Group contains 3 groups and 5 rules
[ref]   Traditional Unix security relies heavily on file and directory permissions to prevent unauthorized users from reading or modifying files to which they should not have access.

Several of the commands in this section search filesystems for files or directories with certain characteristics, and are intended to be run on every local partition on a given system. When the variable PART appears in one of the commands below, it means that the command is intended to be run repeatedly, with the name of each local partition substituted for PART in turn.

The following command prints a list of all xfs partitions on the local system, which is the default filesystem for Fedora installations:
$ mount -t xfs | awk '{print $3}'
For any systems that use a different local filesystem type, modify this command as appropriate.
Group   Verify Permissions on Important Files and Directories   Group contains 1 group and 4 rules
[ref]   Permissions for many files on a system must be set restrictively to ensure sensitive information is properly protected. This section discusses important permission restrictions which can be verified to ensure that no harmful discrepancies have arisen.
Group   Verify File Permissions Within Some Important Directories   Group contains 4 rules
[ref]   Some directories contain files whose confidentiality or integrity is notably important and may also be susceptible to misconfiguration over time, particularly if unpackaged software is installed. As such, an argument exists to verify that files' permissions within these directories remain configured correctly and restrictively.

Rule   Verify that System Executables Have Root Ownership   [ref]

System executables are stored in the following directories by default:
/bin
/sbin
/usr/bin
/usr/libexec
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/sbin
/usr/sbin
All files in these directories should be owned by the root user. If any file FILE in these directories is found to be owned by a user other than root, correct its ownership with the following command:
$ sudo chown root FILE
         
Rationale:
System binaries are executed by privileged users as well as system services, and restrictive permissions are necessary to ensure that their execution of these programs cannot be co-opted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_ownership_binary_dirs
References:
cis-csc12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cobit5APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02
disaCCI-001499
isa-62443-20094.3.3.7.3
isa-62443-2013SR 2.1, SR 5.2
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2
nistCM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, CM-6(a), AC-6(1)
nist-csfPR.AC-4, PR.DS-5
os-srgSRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100
anssiR50

Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read list of system executables without root ownership
  command: find /bin/ /usr/bin/ /usr/local/bin/ /sbin/ /usr/sbin/ /usr/local/sbin/
    /usr/libexec \! -user root
  register: no_root_system_executables
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_ownership_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set ownership to root of system executables
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: root
  with_items: '{{ no_root_system_executables.stdout_lines }}'
  when: no_root_system_executables.stdout_lines | length > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_ownership_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Verify that Shared Library Files Have Root Ownership   [ref]

System-wide shared library files, which are linked to executables during process load time or run time, are stored in the following directories by default:
/lib
/lib64
/usr/lib
/usr/lib64
Kernel modules, which can be added to the kernel during runtime, are also stored in /lib/modules. All files in these directories should be owned by the root user. If the directory, or any file in these directories, is found to be owned by a user other than root correct its ownership with the following command:
$ sudo chown root FILE
         
Rationale:
Files from shared library directories are loaded into the address space of processes (including privileged ones) or of the kernel itself at runtime. Proper ownership is necessary to protect the integrity of the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_ownership_library_dirs
References:
cis-csc12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cobit5APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02
disaCCI-001499
isa-62443-20094.3.3.7.3
isa-62443-2013SR 2.1, SR 5.2
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2
nistCM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, CM-6(a), AC-6(1)
nist-csfPR.AC-4, PR.DS-5
os-srgSRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Find /lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /usr/lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex
    "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /usr/lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure

find /lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

find /lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

find /usr/lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

find /usr/lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

Rule   Verify that System Executables Have Restrictive Permissions   [ref]

System executables are stored in the following directories by default:
/bin
/sbin
/usr/bin
/usr/libexec
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/sbin
/usr/sbin
All files in these directories should not be group-writable or world-writable. If any file FILE in these directories is found to be group-writable or world-writable, correct its permission with the following command:
$ sudo chmod go-w FILE
         
Rationale:
System binaries are executed by privileged users, as well as system services, and restrictive permissions are necessary to ensure execution of these programs cannot be co-opted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_binary_dirs
References:
cis-csc12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cobit5APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02
disaCCI-001499
isa-62443-20094.3.3.7.3
isa-62443-2013SR 2.1, SR 5.2
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2
nistCM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, CM-6(a), AC-6(1)
nist-csfPR.AC-4, PR.DS-5
os-srgSRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100
anssiR50

Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read list of world and group writable system executables
  ansible.builtin.command: find /bin /usr/bin /usr/local/bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/local/sbin
    /usr/libexec -perm /022 -type f
  register: world_writable_library_files
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_permissions_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Remove world/group writability of system executables
  ansible.builtin.file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: go-w
    state: file
  with_items: '{{ world_writable_library_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: world_writable_library_files.stdout_lines | length > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_permissions_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Verify that Shared Library Files Have Restrictive Permissions   [ref]

System-wide shared library files, which are linked to executables during process load time or run time, are stored in the following directories by default:
/lib
/lib64
/usr/lib
/usr/lib64
Kernel modules, which can be added to the kernel during runtime, are stored in /lib/modules. All files in these directories should not be group-writable or world-writable. If any file in these directories is found to be group-writable or world-writable, correct its permission with the following command:
$ sudo chmod go-w FILE
         
Rationale:
Files from shared library directories are loaded into the address space of processes (including privileged ones) or of the kernel itself at runtime. Restrictive permissions are necessary to protect the integrity of the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_library_dirs
References:
cis-csc12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5
cobit5APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02
disaCCI-001499
isa-62443-20094.3.3.7.3
isa-62443-2013SR 2.1, SR 5.2
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nerc-cipCIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2
nistCM-6(a), CM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, AC-6(1)
nist-csfPR.AC-4, PR.DS-5
os-srgSRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Find /lib/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended -regex
    "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /lib/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /lib64/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended -regex
    "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /lib64/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended -regex
    "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /usr/lib/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib64/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended
    -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /usr/lib64/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure





find -H /lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;

find -H /lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;

find -H /usr/lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;

find -H /usr/lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regextype posix-extended -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;
Group   Restrict Dynamic Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Linux includes a number of facilities for the automated addition and removal of filesystems on a running system. These facilities may be necessary in many environments, but this capability also carries some risk -- whether direct risk from allowing users to introduce arbitrary filesystems, or risk that software flaws in the automated mount facility itself could allow an attacker to compromise the system.

This command can be used to list the types of filesystems that are available to the currently executing kernel:
$ find /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/fs -type f -name '*.ko'
If these filesystems are not required then they can be explicitly disabled in a configuratio file in /etc/modprobe.d.

Rule   Disable Kernel Support for USB via Bootloader Configuration   [ref]

All USB support can be disabled by adding the nousb argument to the kernel's boot loader configuration. To do so, append "nousb" to the kernel line in /etc/default/grub as shown:
kernel /vmlinuz-VERSION ro vga=ext root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet nousb
Warning:  Disabling all kernel support for USB will cause problems for systems with USB-based keyboards, mice, or printers. This configuration is infeasible for systems which require USB devices, which is common.
Rationale:
Disabling the USB subsystem within the Linux kernel at system boot will protect against potentially malicious USB devices, although it is only practical in specialized systems.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_grub2_nousb_argument
References:
cis-csc12, 16
cobit5APO13.01, DSS01.04, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03
disaCCI-001250
hipaa164.308(a)(3)(i), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2), 164.312(a)(1), 164.312(a)(2)(iv), 164.312(b)
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1
nistMP-7, CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-3, PR.AC-6

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q grub2-common; then

# Correct the form of default kernel command line in /etc/default/grub
if ! grep -q '^GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=".*nousb.*"' /etc/default/grub;
then
  # Edit configuration setting
  # Append 'nousb' argument to /etc/default/grub (if not present yet)
  sed -i "s/\(GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=\)\"\(.*\)\"/\1\"\2 nousb\"/" /etc/default/grub
  # Edit runtime setting
  # Correct the form of kernel command line for each installed kernel in the bootloader
  /sbin/grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args="nousb"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Services   Group contains 3 groups and 4 rules
[ref]   The best protection against vulnerable software is running less software. This section describes how to review the software which Fedora installs on a system and disable software which is not needed. It then enumerates the software packages installed on a default Fedora system and provides guidance about which ones can be safely disabled.

Fedora provides a convenient minimal install option that essentially installs the bare necessities for a functional system. When building Fedora systems, it is highly recommended to select the minimal packages and then build up the system from there.
Group   Network Time Protocol   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The Network Time Protocol is used to manage the system clock over a network. Computer clocks are not very accurate, so time will drift unpredictably on unmanaged systems. Central time protocols can be used both to ensure that time is consistent among a network of systems, and that their time is consistent with the outside world.

If every system on a network reliably reports the same time, then it is much easier to correlate log messages in case of an attack. In addition, a number of cryptographic protocols (such as Kerberos) use timestamps to prevent certain types of attacks. If your network does not have synchronized time, these protocols may be unreliable or even unusable.

Depending on the specifics of the network, global time accuracy may be just as important as local synchronization, or not very important at all. If your network is connected to the Internet, using a public timeserver (or one provided by your enterprise) provides globally accurate timestamps which may be essential in investigating or responding to an attack which originated outside of your network.

A typical network setup involves a small number of internal systems operating as NTP servers, and the remainder obtaining time information from those internal servers.

There is a choice between the daemons ntpd and chronyd, which are available from the repositories in the ntp and chrony packages respectively.

The default chronyd daemon can work well when external time references are only intermittently accesible, can perform well even when the network is congested for longer periods of time, can usually synchronize the clock faster and with better time accuracy, and quickly adapts to sudden changes in the rate of the clock, for example, due to changes in the temperature of the crystal oscillator. Chronyd should be considered for all systems which are frequently suspended or otherwise intermittently disconnected and reconnected to a network. Mobile and virtual systems for example.

The ntpd NTP daemon fully supports NTP protocol version 4 (RFC 5905), including broadcast, multicast, manycast clients and servers, and the orphan mode. It also supports extra authentication schemes based on public-key cryptography (RFC 5906). The NTP daemon (ntpd) should be considered for systems which are normally kept permanently on. Systems which are required to use broadcast or multicast IP, or to perform authentication of packets with the Autokey protocol, should consider using ntpd.

Refer to https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/fedora/latest/system-administrators-guide/servers/Configuring_NTP_Using_the_chrony_Suite/ for more detailed comparison of features of chronyd and ntpd daemon features respectively, and for further guidance how to choose between the two NTP daemons.

The upstream manual pages at https://chrony-project.org/documentation.html for chronyd and http://www.ntp.org for ntpd provide additional information on the capabilities and configuration of each of the NTP daemons.

Rule   Enable the NTP Daemon   [ref]

Run the following command to determine the current status of the chronyd service:
$ sudo systemctl is-active chronyd
If the service is running, it should return the following:
active
Note: The chronyd daemon is enabled by default.

Run the following command to determine the current status of the ntpd service:
$ sudo systemctl is-active ntpd
If the service is running, it should return the following:
active
Note: The ntpd daemon is not enabled by default. Though as mentioned in the previous sections in certain environments the ntpd daemon might be preferred to be used rather than the chronyd one. Refer to: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/system_administrators_guide/ch-configuring_ntp_using_the_chrony_suite for guidance which NTP daemon to choose depending on the environment used.
Rationale:
Enabling some of chronyd or ntpd services ensures that the NTP daemon will be running and that the system will synchronize its time to any servers specified. This is important whether the system is configured to be a client (and synchronize only its own clock) or it is also acting as an NTP server to other systems. Synchronizing time is essential for authentication services such as Kerberos, but it is also important for maintaining accurate logs and auditing possible security breaches.

The chronyd and ntpd NTP daemons offer all of the functionality of ntpdate, which is now deprecated.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_chronyd_or_ntpd_enabled
References:
cis-csc1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6
cobit5APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01
cui3.3.7
disaCCI-000160
isa-62443-20094.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9
ism0988, 1405
iso27001-2013A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1
nistCM-6(a), AU-8(1)(a), AU-12(1)
nist-csfPR.PT-1
pcidssReq-10.4.1
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000116-CTR-000235
anssiR71
pcidss410.6.1

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(1)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-8(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.4.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.6.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_chronyd_or_ntpd_enabled

- name: Gather the package facts
  ansible.builtin.package_facts:
    manager: auto
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(1)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-8(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.4.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.6.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_chronyd_or_ntpd_enabled

- name: Start ntpd service if ntp installed
  systemd:
    name: ntpd
    enabled: 'yes'
    state: started
    masked: 'no'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '''ntp'' in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(1)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-8(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.4.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.6.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_chronyd_or_ntpd_enabled

- name: Start chronyd service if chrony or chronyd installed
  systemd:
    name: chronyd
    enabled: 'yes'
    state: started
    masked: 'no'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ('chrony' in ansible_facts.packages) or ('chronyd' in ansible_facts.packages)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(1)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-8(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.4.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.6.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_chronyd_or_ntpd_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if rpm --quiet -q "chrony" ; then
    if ! /usr/sbin/pidof ntpd ; then
        /usr/bin/systemctl enable "chronyd"
        /usr/bin/systemctl start "chronyd"
        # The service may not be running because it has been started and failed,
        # so let's reset the state so OVAL checks pass.
        # Service should be 'inactive', not 'failed' after reboot though.
        if /usr/bin/systemctl --failed | grep -q "chronyd"; then
            /usr/bin/systemctl reset-failed "chronyd"
        fi
    fi
elif rpm --quiet -q "ntp" ; then
    /usr/bin/systemctl enable "ntpd"
    /usr/bin/systemctl start "ntpd"
    # The service may not be running because it has been started and failed,
    # so let's reset the state so OVAL checks pass.
    # Service should be 'inactive', not 'failed' after reboot though.
    if /usr/bin/systemctl --failed | grep -q "ntpd"; then
        /usr/bin/systemctl reset-failed "ntpd"
    fi
else
    if ! rpm -q --quiet "chrony" ; then
        dnf install -y "chrony"
    fi
    /usr/bin/systemctl enable "chronyd"
    /usr/bin/systemctl start "chronyd"
    # The service may not be running because it has been started and failed,
    # so let's reset the state so OVAL checks pass.
    # Service should be 'inactive', not 'failed' after reboot though.
    if /usr/bin/systemctl --failed | grep -q "chronyd"; then
        /usr/bin/systemctl reset-failed "chronyd"
    fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Specify a Remote NTP Server   [ref]

Depending on specific functional requirements of a concrete production environment, the Fedora system can be configured to utilize the services of the chronyd NTP daemon (the default), or services of the ntpd NTP daemon. Refer to https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/system_administrators_guide/ch-configuring_ntp_using_the_chrony_suite for more detailed comparison of the features of both of the choices, and for further guidance how to choose between the two NTP daemons.
To specify a remote NTP server for time synchronization, perform the following:
  • if the system is configured to use the chronyd as the NTP daemon (the default), edit the file /etc/chrony.conf as follows,
  • if the system is configured to use the ntpd as the NTP daemon, edit the file /etc/ntp.conf as documented below.
Add or correct the following lines, substituting the IP or hostname of a remote NTP server for ntpserver:
server ntpserver
       
This instructs the NTP software to contact that remote server to obtain time data.
Rationale:
Synchronizing with an NTP server makes it possible to collate system logs from multiple sources or correlate computer events with real time events.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_chronyd_or_ntpd_specify_remote_server
References:
cis-csc1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6
cobit5APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01
cui3.3.7
disaCCI-000160, CCI-001891
isa-62443-20094.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9
iso27001-2013A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1
nistCM-6(a), AU-8(1)(a), AU-8(2), AU-12(1)
nist-csfPR.PT-1
pcidssReq-10.4.1, Req-10.4.3
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000116-CTR-000235

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,{{ %23%20Allow%20for%20extra%20configuration%20files.%20This%20is%20useful%0A%23%20for%20admins%20specifying%20their%20own%20NTP%20servers%0Ainclude%20/etc/chrony.d/%2A.conf%0A%0A%23%20Set%20chronyd%20as%20client-only.%0Aport%200%0A%0A%23%20Disable%20chronyc%20from%20the%20network%0Acmdport%200%0A%0A%23%20Record%20the%20rate%20at%20which%20the%20system%20clock%20gains/losses%20time.%0Adriftfile%20/var/lib/chrony/drift%0A%0A%23%20Allow%20the%20system%20clock%20to%20be%20stepped%20in%20the%20first%20three%20updates%0A%23%20if%20its%20offset%20is%20larger%20than%201%20second.%0Amakestep%201.0%203%0A%0A%23%20Enable%20kernel%20synchronization%20of%20the%20real-time%20clock%20%28RTC%29.%0Artcsync%0A%0A%23%20Enable%20hardware%20timestamping%20on%20all%20interfaces%20that%20support%20it.%0A%23hwtimestamp%20%2A%0A%0A%23%20Increase%20the%20minimum%20number%20of%20selectable%20sources%20required%20to%20adjust%0A%23%20the%20system%20clock.%0A%23minsources%202%0A%0A%23%20Allow%20NTP%20client%20access%20from%20local%20network.%0A%23allow%20192.168.0.0/16%0A%0A%23%20Serve%20time%20even%20if%20not%20synchronized%20to%20a%20time%20source.%0A%23local%20stratum%2010%0A%0A%23%20Require%20authentication%20%28nts%20or%20key%20option%29%20for%20all%20NTP%20sources.%0A%23authselectmode%20require%0A%0A%23%20Specify%20file%20containing%20keys%20for%20NTP%20authentication.%0Akeyfile%20/etc/chrony.keys%0A%0A%23%20Insert/delete%20leap%20seconds%20by%20slewing%20instead%20of%20stepping.%0A%23leapsecmode%20slew%0A%0A%23%20Get%20TAI-UTC%20offset%20and%20leap%20seconds%20from%20the%20system%20tz%20database.%0Aleapsectz%20right/UTC%0A%0A%23%20Specify%20directory%20for%20log%20files.%0Alogdir%20/var/log/chrony%0A%0A%23%20Select%20which%20information%20is%20logged.%0A%23log%20measurements%20statistics%20tracking }}
        mode: 420
        overwrite: true
        path: /etc/chrony.conf
      - contents:
          source: data:,
        mode: 420
        overwrite: true
        path: /etc/chrony.d/.mco-keep
      - contents:
          source: data:,{{ %23%0A%23%20This%20file%20controls%20the%20configuration%20of%20the%20ntp%20server%0A%23%20%7B%7B.var_multiple_time_servers%7D%7D%20we%20have%20to%20put%20variable%20array%20name%20here%20for%20mutilines%20remediation%0A%7B%7B%24var_time_service_set_maxpoll%3A%3D.var_time_service_set_maxpoll%7D%7D%0A%7B%7Brange%20%24element%3A%3D.var_multiple_time_servers%7CtoArrayByComma%7D%7Dserver%20%7B%7B%24element%7D%7D%20minpoll%204%20maxpoll%20%7B%7B%24var_time_service_set_maxpoll%7D%7D%0A%7B%7Bend%7D%7D }}
        mode: 420
        overwrite: true
        path: /etc/chrony.d/ntp-server.conf

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && { ( [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && ( rpm --quiet -q chrony || rpm --quiet -q ntp ) ); }; then

var_multiple_time_servers='0.pool.ntp.org,1.pool.ntp.org,2.pool.ntp.org,3.pool.ntp.org'


config_file="/etc/ntp.conf"
/usr/sbin/pidof ntpd || config_file="/etc/chrony.conf"

if ! grep -q ^server "$config_file" ; then
  if ! grep -q '#[[:space:]]*server' "$config_file" ; then
    for server in $(echo "$var_multiple_time_servers" | tr ',' '\n') ; do
      printf '\nserver %s' "$server" >> "$config_file"
    done
  else
    sed -i 's/#[ \t]*server/server/g' "$config_file"
  fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   SSH Server   Group contains 1 group and 2 rules
[ref]   The SSH protocol is recommended for remote login and remote file transfer. SSH provides confidentiality and integrity for data exchanged between two systems, as well as server authentication, through the use of public key cryptography. The implementation included with the system is called OpenSSH, and more detailed documentation is available from its website, https://www.openssh.com. Its server program is called sshd and provided by the RPM package openssh-server.
Group   Configure OpenSSH Server if Necessary   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   If the system needs to act as an SSH server, then certain changes should be made to the OpenSSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config. The following recommendations can be applied to this file. See the sshd_config(5) man page for more detailed information.

Rule   Disable SSH Access via Empty Passwords   [ref]

Disallow SSH login with empty passwords. The default SSH configuration disables logins with empty passwords. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for PermitEmptyPasswords.
To explicitly disallow SSH login from accounts with empty passwords, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/00-complianceascode-hardening.conf:
PermitEmptyPasswords no
Any accounts with empty passwords should be disabled immediately, and PAM configuration should prevent users from being able to assign themselves empty passwords.
Rationale:
Configuring this setting for the SSH daemon provides additional assurance that remote login via SSH will require a password, even in the event of misconfiguration elsewhere.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_disable_empty_passwords
References:
cis-csc11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 9
cjis5.5.6
cobit5APO01.06, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.06
cui3.1.1, 3.1.5
disaCCI-000366, CCI-000766
hipaa164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii)
isa-62443-20094.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3
isa-62443-2013SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 5.2, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5
nistAC-17(a), CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a)
nist-csfPR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3
osppFIA_UAU.1
pcidssReq-2.2.4
os-srgSRG-OS-000106-GPOS-00053, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00229, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227
pcidss42.2.6

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Disable SSH Access via Empty Passwords
  block:

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: false
      regexp: (?i)^\s*{{ "PermitEmptyPasswords"| regex_escape }}\s+
      state: absent

  - name: Check if /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d exists
    stat:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d
    register: _etc_ssh_sshd_config_d_exists

  - name: Check if the parameter PermitEmptyPasswords is present in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d
    find:
      paths: /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d
      recurse: 'yes'
      follow: 'no'
      contains: (?i)^\s*{{ "PermitEmptyPasswords"| regex_escape }}\s+
    register: _etc_ssh_sshd_config_d_has_parameter
    when: _etc_ssh_sshd_config_d_exists.stat.isdir is defined and _etc_ssh_sshd_config_d_exists.stat.isdir

  - name: Remove parameter from files in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item.path }}'
      create: false
      regexp: (?i)^\s*{{ "PermitEmptyPasswords"| regex_escape }}\s+
      state: absent
    with_items: '{{ _etc_ssh_sshd_config_d_has_parameter.files }}'
    when: _etc_ssh_sshd_config_d_has_parameter.matched

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*{{ "PermitEmptyPasswords"| regex_escape }}\s+
      line: PermitEmptyPasswords no
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.4
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_empty_passwords

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

mkdir -p /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d
touch /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf

LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d"/*.conf
if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "PermitEmptyPasswords no" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/01-complianceascode-reinforce-os-defaults.conf.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   System Accounting with auditd   Group contains 9 groups and 40 rules
[ref]   The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html-single/selinux_users_and_administrators_guide/index#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
Group   Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   Group contains 7 groups and 31 rules
[ref]   The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:
  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart
Group   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls   Group contains 13 rules
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit chmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="chmod"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit chown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chown for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chown for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="chown"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chown fchown fchownat lchown"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmod   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fchmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmod for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmod for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fchmod"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmodat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fchmodat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmodat for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmodat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmodat in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmodat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmodat in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmodat for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmodat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmodat in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmodat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmodat in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fchmodat"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchown   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fchown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchown for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchown for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fchown"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chown fchown fchownat lchown"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchownat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchownat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fchownat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchownat for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchownat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchownat in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchownat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchownat in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchownat for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchownat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchownat in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchownat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of fchownat in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchownat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fchownat"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chown fchown fchownat lchown"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fremovexattr   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000463-GPOS-00207, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000496-CTR-001240, SRG-APP-000497-CTR-001245, SRG-APP-000498-CTR-001250, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fremovexattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fremovexattr for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fremovexattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fremovexattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fremovexattr for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fremovexattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fremovexattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fremovexattr"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="fremovexattr lremovexattr removexattr fsetxattr lsetxattr setxattr"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fsetxattr   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000463-GPOS-00207, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000496-CTR-001240, SRG-APP-000497-CTR-001245, SRG-APP-000498-CTR-001250, SRG-APP-000501-CTR-001265, SRG-APP-000502-CTR-001270
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fsetxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fsetxattr for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fsetxattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fsetxattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fsetxattr for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fsetxattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of fsetxattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fsetxattr"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="fremovexattr lremovexattr removexattr fsetxattr lsetxattr setxattr"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lchown   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit lchown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for lchown for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of lchown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of lchown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for lchown for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of lchown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lchown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of lchown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lchown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="lchown"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chown fchown fchownat lchown"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lremovexattr   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000463-GPOS-00207, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000496-CTR-001240, SRG-APP-000497-CTR-001245, SRG-APP-000498-CTR-001250, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255, SRG-APP-000501-CTR-001265, SRG-APP-000502-CTR-001270
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit lremovexattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for lremovexattr for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lremovexattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lremovexattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for lremovexattr for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lremovexattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lremovexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lremovexattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lremovexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="lremovexattr"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="fremovexattr lremovexattr removexattr fsetxattr lsetxattr setxattr"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - lsetxattr   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S lsetxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000463-GPOS-00207, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000496-CTR-001240, SRG-APP-000497-CTR-001245, SRG-APP-000498-CTR-001250, SRG-APP-000501-CTR-001265, SRG-APP-000502-CTR-001270
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit lsetxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for lsetxattr for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lsetxattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lsetxattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for lsetxattr for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lsetxattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - lsetxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of lsetxattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_lsetxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="lsetxattr"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="fremovexattr lremovexattr removexattr fsetxattr lsetxattr setxattr"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - removexattr   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root.

If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod


If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S removexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000463-GPOS-00207, SRG-OS-000468-GPOS-00212, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000496-CTR-001240, SRG-APP-000497-CTR-001245, SRG-APP-000498-CTR-001250, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255, SRG-APP-000501-CTR-001265, SRG-APP-000502-CTR-001270
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit removexattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for removexattr for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - removexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of removexattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - removexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of removexattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for removexattr for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - removexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of removexattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - removexattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of removexattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_removexattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="removexattr"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="fremovexattr lremovexattr removexattr fsetxattr lsetxattr setxattr"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - setxattr   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
hipaa164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e)
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.5.5
os-srgSRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203
app-srg-ctrSRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235
anssiR73
pcidss410.3.4

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit setxattr tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for setxattr for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - setxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of setxattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - setxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of setxattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for setxattr for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - setxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of setxattr in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - setxattr
      syscall_grouping:
      - fremovexattr
      - lremovexattr
      - removexattr
      - fsetxattr
      - lsetxattr
      - setxattr

  - name: Check existence of setxattr in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_setxattr
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="setxattr"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="fremovexattr lremovexattr removexattr fsetxattr lsetxattr setxattr"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Record File Deletion Events by User   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects File Deletion Events by User   [ref]

At a minimum the audit system should collect file deletion events for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename,renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file, setting ARCH to either b32 or b64 as appropriate for your system:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S rmdir,unlink,unlinkat,rename -S renameat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=delete
Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to file deletion; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_rmdir
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlink
  • audit_rules_file_deletion_events_unlinkat
Rationale:
Auditing file deletions will create an audit trail for files that are removed from the system. The audit trail could aid in system troubleshooting, as well as, detecting malicious processes that attempt to delete log files to conceal their presence.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_file_deletion_events
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000366, CCI-000172, CCI-002884
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
osppFAU_GEN.1.1.c
pcidssReq-10.2.7
Group   Record Unauthorized Access Attempts Events to Files (unsuccessful)   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects Unauthorized Access Attempts to Files (unsuccessful)   [ref]

At a minimum the audit system should collect unauthorized file accesses for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following lines to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following lines:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EACCES -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S creat,open,openat,open_by_handle_at,truncate,ftruncate -F exit=-EPERM -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=access
Warning:  This rule checks for multiple syscalls related to unsuccessful file modification; it was written with DISA STIG in mind. Other policies should use a separate rule for each syscall that needs to be checked. For example:
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_open
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_ftruncate
  • audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification_creat
Rationale:
Unsuccessful attempts to access files could be an indicator of malicious activity on a system. Auditing these events could serve as evidence of potential system compromise.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_unsuccessful_file_modification
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000172, CCI-002884
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
ism0582, 0584, 05885, 0586, 0846, 0957
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
pcidssReq-10.2.4, Req-10.2.1
Group   Record Information on Kernel Modules Loading and Unloading   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   To capture kernel module loading and unloading events, use following lines, setting ARCH to either b32 for 32-bit system, or having two lines for both b32 and b64 in case your system is 64-bit:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module,delete_module -F key=modules
Place to add the lines depends on a way auditd daemon is configured. If it is configured to use the augenrules program (the default), add the lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility, add the lines to file /etc/audit/audit.rules.

Rule   Ensure auditd Collects Information on Kernel Module Loading and Unloading   [ref]

To capture kernel module loading and unloading events, use following lines, setting ARCH to either b32 for 32-bit system, or having two lines for both b32 and b64 in case your system is 64-bit:
-a always,exit -F arch=ARCH -S init_module,finit_module,delete_module -F key=modules
The place to add the lines depends on a way auditd daemon is configured. If it is configured to use the augenrules program (the default), add the lines to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility, add the lines to file /etc/audit/audit.rules.
Rationale:
The addition/removal of kernel modules can be used to alter the behavior of the kernel and potentially introduce malicious code into kernel space. It is important to have an audit trail of modules that have been introduced into the kernel.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
References:
cis-csc1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
cjis5.4.1.1
cobit5APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01
cui3.1.7
disaCCI-000172
isa-62443-20094.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4
isa-62443-2013SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6
iso27001-2013A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2
nistAU-2(d), AU-12(c), AC-6(9), CM-6(a)
nist-csfDE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4
pcidssReq-10.2.7

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
  - audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
  - audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for kernel module loading for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module
      syscall_grouping:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module

  - name: Check existence of init_module, delete_module, finit_module in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( (?:-k |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F key=modules
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module
      syscall_grouping:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module

  - name: Check existence of init_module, delete_module, finit_module in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( (?:-k |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F key=modules
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
  - audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for kernel module loading for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module
      syscall_grouping:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module

  - name: Check existence of init_module, delete_module, finit_module in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/modules.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( (?:-k |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F key=modules
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module
      syscall_grouping:
      - init_module
      - delete_module
      - finit_module

  - name: Check existence of init_module, delete_module, finit_module in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( (?:-k |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F key=modules
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(9)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.7
  - audit_rules_kernel_module_loading
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
# Note: 32-bit and 64-bit kernel syscall numbers not always line up =>
#       it's required on a 64-bit system to check also for the presence
#       of 32-bit's equivalent of the corresponding rule.
#       (See `man 7 audit.rules` for details )
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
        ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
        OTHER_FILTERS=""
        
        AUID_FILTERS=""
        
        SYSCALL="init_module finit_module delete_module"
        KEY="modules"
        SYSCALL_GROUPING="init_module finit_module delete_module"
        # Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
        unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
        unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Record Attempts to Alter Logon and Logout Events   Group contains 1 rule