Guide to the Secure Configuration of Oracle Linux 9

with profile ANSSI-BP-028 (enhanced)
This profile contains configurations that align to ANSSI-BP-028 at the enhanced hardening level. ANSSI is the French National Information Security Agency, and stands for Agence nationale de la sécurité des systèmes d'information. ANSSI-BP-028 is a configuration recommendation for GNU/Linux systems. A copy of the ANSSI-BP-028 can be found at the ANSSI website: https://www.ssi.gouv.fr/administration/guide/recommandations-de-securite-relatives-a-un-systeme-gnulinux/
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Oracle Linux 9. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleANSSI-BP-028 (enhanced)
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_anssi_bp28_enhanced

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:oracle:linux:9

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.71

  • draft (as of 2023-10-04)

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. Account and Access Control
    3. System Accounting with auditd
    4. GRUB2 bootloader configuration
    5. Configure Syslog
    6. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    7. File Permissions and Masks
    8. SELinux
  2. Services
    1. DHCP
    2. Mail Server Software
    3. Network Time Protocol
    4. Obsolete Services
    5. SSH Server

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Oracle Linux 9   Group contains 66 groups and 228 rules
Group   System Settings   Group contains 51 groups and 209 rules
[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.
Group   Installing and Maintaining Software   Group contains 6 groups and 27 rules
[ref]   The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.
Group   System and Software Integrity   Group contains 2 groups and 2 rules
[ref]   System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.
Group   Software Integrity Checking   Group contains 1 group and 2 rules
[ref]   Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.
Group   Verify Integrity with AIDE   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   AIDE conducts integrity checks by comparing information about files with previously-gathered information. Ideally, the AIDE database is created immediately after initial system configuration, and then again after any software update. AIDE is highly configurable, with further configuration information located in /usr/share/doc/aide-VERSION.

Rule   Install AIDE   [ref]

The aide package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install aide
Rationale:
The AIDE package must be installed if it is to be available for integrity checking.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_aide_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R51), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, CCI-002696, CCI-002699, CCI-001744, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, 1034, 1288, 1341, 1417, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, 11.5.2, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_aide

class install_aide {
  package { 'aide':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

package --add=aide


[[packages]]
name = "aide"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure aide is installed
  package:
    name: aide
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_aide_installed

Rule   Build and Test AIDE Database   [ref]

Run the following command to generate a new database:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --init
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/sbin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/sbin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.
Rationale:
For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_build_database
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R51), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, 11.5.2, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "aide" ; then
    yum install -y "aide"
fi

/usr/sbin/aide --init
/bin/cp -p /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Ensure AIDE Is Installed
  ansible.builtin.package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
  - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Build and Test AIDE Database
  ansible.builtin.command: /usr/sbin/aide --init
  changed_when: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Check Whether the Stock AIDE Database Exists
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
  register: aide_database_stat
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Stage AIDE Database
  ansible.builtin.copy:
    src: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new.gz
    dest: /var/lib/aide/aide.db.gz
    backup: true
    remote_src: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - (aide_database_stat.stat.exists is defined and aide_database_stat.stat.exists)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Disk Partitioning   Group contains 7 rules
[ref]   To ensure separation and protection of data, there are top-level system directories which should be placed on their own physical partition or logical volume. The installer's default partitioning scheme creates separate logical volumes for /, /boot, and swap.
  • If starting with any of the default layouts, check the box to \"Review and modify partitioning.\" This allows for the easy creation of additional logical volumes inside the volume group already created, though it may require making /'s logical volume smaller to create space. In general, using logical volumes is preferable to using partitions because they can be more easily adjusted later.
  • If creating a custom layout, create the partitions mentioned in the previous paragraph (which the installer will require anyway), as well as separate ones described in the following sections.
If a system has already been installed, and the default partitioning scheme was used, it is possible but nontrivial to modify it to create separate logical volumes for the directories listed above. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) makes this possible. See the LVM HOWTO at http://tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ for more detailed information on LVM.

Rule   Ensure /home Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

If user home directories will be stored locally, create a separate partition for /home at installation time (or migrate it later using LVM). If /home will be mounted from another system such as an NFS server, then creating a separate partition is not necessary at installation time, and the mountpoint can instead be configured later.
Rationale:
Ensuring that /home is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, and also helps ensure that users cannot trivially fill partitions used for log or audit data storage.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_home
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R12), 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, CCI-001208, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

part /home

Rule   Ensure /srv Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

If a file server (FTP, TFTP...) is hosted locally, create a separate partition for /srv at installation time (or migrate it later using LVM). If /srv will be mounted from another system such as an NFS server, then creating a separate partition is not necessary at installation time, and the mountpoint can instead be configured later.
Rationale:
Srv deserves files for local network file server such as FTP. Ensuring that /srv is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, and also helps ensure that users cannot trivially fill partitions used for log or audit data storage.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_srv
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R12)


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

part /srv

Rule   Ensure /tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
The /tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_tmp
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R12), 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

part /tmp

Rule   Ensure /var Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var directory is used by daemons and other system services to store frequently-changing data. Ensure that /var has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
Ensuring that /var is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options. This helps protect system services such as daemons or other programs which use it. It is not uncommon for the /var directory to contain world-writable directories installed by other software packages.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R12), 12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

part /var

Rule   Ensure /var/log Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

System logs are stored in the /var/log directory. Ensure that /var/log has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
Placing /var/log in its own partition enables better separation between log files and other files in /var/.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_log
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R12), BP28(R47), 1, 12, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, 8, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CIP-007-3 R6.5, CM-6(a), AU-4, SC-5(2), PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

part /var/log

Rule   Ensure /var/log/audit Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

Audit logs are stored in the /var/log/audit directory. Ensure that /var/log/audit has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM. Make absolutely certain that it is large enough to store all audit logs that will be created by the auditing daemon.
Rationale:
Placing /var/log/audit in its own partition enables better separation between audit files and other files, and helps ensure that auditing cannot be halted due to the partition running out of space.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_log_audit
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R43), 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, CCI-001849, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.17.2.1, CIP-007-3 R6.5, CM-6(a), AU-4, SC-5(2), PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000341-GPOS-00132, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-APP-000357-CTR-000800


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

part /var/log/audit

Rule   Ensure /var/tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var/tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
The /var/tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /var/tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_tmp
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R12), SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

part /var/tmp
Group   Sudo   Group contains 8 rules
[ref]   Sudo, which stands for "su 'do'", provides the ability to delegate authority to certain users, groups of users, or system administrators. When configured for system users and/or groups, Sudo can allow a user or group to execute privileged commands that normally only root is allowed to execute.

For more information on Sudo and addition Sudo configuration options, see https://www.sudo.ws.

Rule   Install sudo Package   [ref]

The sudo package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install sudo
Rationale:
sudo is a program designed to allow a system administrator to give limited root privileges to users and log root activity. The basic philosophy is to give as few privileges as possible but still allow system users to get their work done.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_sudo_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R19), 1382, 1384, 1386, CM-6(a), FMT_MOF_EXT.1, 10.2.1.5, SRG-OS-000324-GPOS-00125


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_sudo

class install_sudo {
  package { 'sudo':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

package --add=sudo


[[packages]]
name = "sudo"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "sudo" ; then
    yum install -y "sudo"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure sudo is installed
  package:
    name: sudo
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.2.1.5
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_sudo_installed

Rule   Ensure Privileged Escalated Commands Cannot Execute Other Commands - sudo NOEXEC   [ref]

The sudo NOEXEC tag, when specified, prevents user executed commands from executing other commands, like a shell for example. This should be enabled by making sure that the NOEXEC tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Restricting the capability of sudo allowed commands to execute sub-commands prevents users from running programs with privileges they wouldn't have otherwise.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_noexec
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults[\s]*\bnoexec\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option noexec
        echo "Defaults noexec" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure noexec is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\bnoexec\b.*$
    line: Defaults noexec
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  tags:
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_add_noexec

Rule   Ensure Only Users Logged In To Real tty Can Execute Sudo - sudo requiretty   [ref]

The sudo requiretty tag, when specified, will only execute sudo commands from users logged in to a real tty. This should be enabled by making sure that the requiretty tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Restricting the use cases in which a user is allowed to execute sudo commands reduces the attack surface.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_requiretty
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R58)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults[\s]*\brequiretty\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option requiretty
        echo "Defaults requiretty" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure requiretty is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\brequiretty\b.*$
    line: Defaults requiretty
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  tags:
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_add_requiretty

Rule   Ensure Only Users Logged In To Real tty Can Execute Sudo - sudo use_pty   [ref]

The sudo use_pty tag, when specified, will only execute sudo commands from users logged in to a real tty. This should be enabled by making sure that the use_pty tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Requiring that sudo commands be run in a pseudo-terminal can prevent an attacker from retaining access to the user's terminal after the main program has finished executing.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_use_pty
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R58), Req-10.2.5, 10.2.1.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q sudo; then

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults[\s]*\buse_pty\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option use_pty
        echo "Defaults use_pty" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.2.1.5
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_add_use_pty

- name: Ensure use_pty is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\buse_pty\b.*$
    line: Defaults use_pty
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  when: '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.2.1.5
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_add_use_pty

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo !authenticate   [ref]

The sudo !authenticate option, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the !authenticate option does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_remove_no_authenticate
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R5), BP28(R59), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "!authenticate" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

- name: Remove lines containing !authenticate from sudoers files
  replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo NOPASSWD   [ref]

The sudo NOPASSWD tag, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the NOPASSWD tag does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_remove_nopasswd
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R5), BP28(R59), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "NOPASSWD" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_nopasswd

- name: Remove lines containing NOPASSWD from sudoers files
  replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_nopasswd

Rule   Explicit arguments in sudo specifications   [ref]

All commands in the sudoers file must strictly specify the arguments allowed to be used for a given user. If the command is supposed to be executed only without arguments, pass "" as an argument in the corresponding user specification.
Warning:  This rule doesn't come with a remediation, as absence of arguments in the user spec doesn't mean that the command is intended to be executed with no arguments.
Warning:  The rule can produce false findings when an argument contains a comma - sudoers syntax allows comma escaping using backslash, but the check doesn't support that. For example, root ALL=(ALL) echo 1\,2 allows root to execute echo 1,2, but the check would interpret it as two commands echo 1\ and 2.
Rationale:
Any argument can modify quite significantly the behavior of a program, whether regarding the realized operation (read, write, delete, etc.) or accessed resources (path in a file system tree). To avoid any possibility of misuse of a command by a user, the ambiguities must be removed at the level of its specification. For example, on some systems, the kernel messages are only accessible by root. If a user nevertheless must have the privileges to read them, the argument of the dmesg command has to be restricted in order to prevent the user from flushing the buffer through the -c option:
user ALL = dmesg ""
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudoers_explicit_command_args
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R63)

Rule   Don't define allowed commands in sudoers by means of exclusion   [ref]

Policies applied by sudo through the sudoers file should not involve negation. Each user specification in the sudoers file contains a comma-delimited list of command specifications. The definition can make use glob patterns, as well as of negations. Indirect definition of those commands by means of exclusion of a set of commands is trivial to bypass, so it is not allowed to use such constructs.
Warning:  This rule doesn't come with a remediation, as negations indicate design issues with the sudoers user specifications design. Just removing negations doesn't increase the security - you typically have to rethink the definition of allowed commands to fix the issue.
Rationale:
Specifying access right using negation is inefficient and can be easily circumvented. For example, it is expected that a specification like
# To avoid absolutely , this rule can be easily circumvented!
user ALL = ALL ,!/ bin/sh
prevents the execution of the shell but that’s not the case: just copy the binary /bin/sh to a different name to make it executable again through the rule keyword ALL.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudoers_no_command_negation
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R61)

Group   Updating Software   Group contains 9 rules
[ref]   The yum command line tool is used to install and update software packages. The system also provides a graphical software update tool in the System menu, in the Administration submenu, called Software Update.

Oracle Linux 9 systems contain an installed software catalog called the RPM database, which records metadata of installed packages. Consistently using yum or the graphical Software Update for all software installation allows for insight into the current inventory of installed software on the system.

Rule   Install dnf-automatic Package   [ref]

The dnf-automatic package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install dnf-automatic
Rationale:
dnf-automatic is an alternative command line interface (CLI) to dnf upgrade suitable for automatic, regular execution.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_dnf-automatic_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R8), SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_dnf-automatic

class install_dnf-automatic {
  package { 'dnf-automatic':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

package --add=dnf-automatic


[[packages]]
name = "dnf-automatic"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

if ! rpm -q --quiet "dnf-automatic" ; then
    yum install -y "dnf-automatic"
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure dnf-automatic is installed
  package:
    name: dnf-automatic
    state: present
  tags:
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_dnf-automatic_installed

Rule   Configure dnf-automatic to Install Available Updates Automatically   [ref]

To ensure that the packages comprising the available updates will be automatically installed by dnf-automatic, set apply_updates to yes under [commands] section in /etc/dnf/automatic.conf.
Rationale:
Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise. The automated installation of updates ensures that recent security patches are applied in a timely manner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dnf-automatic_apply_updates
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R8), 0940, 1144, 1467, 1472, 1483, 1493, 1494, 1495, SI-2(5), CM-6(a), SI-2(c), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080



found=false

# set value in all files if they contain section or key
for f in $(echo -n "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf"); do
    if [ ! -e "$f" ]; then
        continue
    fi

    # find key in section and change value
    if grep -qzosP "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]([^\n\[]*\n+)+?[[:space:]]*apply_updates" "$f"; then
            sed -i "s/apply_updates[^(\n)]*/apply_updates = yes/" "$f"
            found=true

    # find section and add key = value to it
    elif grep -qs "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]" "$f"; then
            sed -i "/[[:space:]]*\[commands\]/a apply_updates = yes" "$f"
            found=true
    fi
done

# if section not in any file, append section with key = value to FIRST file in files parameter
if ! $found ; then
    file=$(echo "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf" | cut -f1 -d ' ')
    mkdir -p "$(dirname "$file")"
    echo -e "[commands]\napply_updates = yes" >> "$file"
fi

Rule   Configure dnf-automatic to Install Only Security Updates   [ref]

To configure dnf-automatic to install only security updates automatically, set upgrade_type to security under [commands] section in /etc/dnf/automatic.conf.
Rationale:
By default, dnf-automatic installs all available updates. Reducing the amount of updated packages only to updates that were issued as a part of a security advisory increases the system stability.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dnf-automatic_security_updates_only
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R8), SI-2(5), CM-6(a), SI-2(c), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080



found=false

# set value in all files if they contain section or key
for f in $(echo -n "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf"); do
    if [ ! -e "$f" ]; then
        continue
    fi

    # find key in section and change value
    if grep -qzosP "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]([^\n\[]*\n+)+?[[:space:]]*upgrade_type" "$f"; then
            sed -i "s/upgrade_type[^(\n)]*/upgrade_type = security/" "$f"
            found=true

    # find section and add key = value to it
    elif grep -qs "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]" "$f"; then
            sed -i "/[[:space:]]*\[commands\]/a upgrade_type = security" "$f"
            found=true
    fi
done

# if section not in any file, append section with key = value to FIRST file in files parameter
if ! $found ; then
    file=$(echo "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf" | cut -f1 -d ' ')
    mkdir -p "$(dirname "$file")"
    echo -e "[commands]\nupgrade_type = security" >> "$file"
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main yum Configuration   [ref]

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:
gpgcheck=1
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, 6.3.3, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q yum; then

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^gpgcheck")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^gpgcheck\\>" "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^gpgcheck\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/yum.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/yum.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/yum.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/yum.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/yum.conf
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    no_extra_spaces: true
    create: false
  when: '"yum" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for Local Packages   [ref]

yum should be configured to verify the signature(s) of local packages prior to installation. To configure yum to verify signatures of local packages, set the localpkg_gpgcheck to 1 in /etc/yum.conf.
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects to the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered and has been provided by a trusted vendor.

Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-11(a), CM-11(b), CM-6(a), CM-5(3), SA-12, SA-12(10), PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q yum; then

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^localpkg_gpgcheck")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^localpkg_gpgcheck\\>" "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^localpkg_gpgcheck\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/yum.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/yum.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/yum.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/yum.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:unknown
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

- name: Ensure GPG check Enabled for Local Packages (yum)
  block:

  - name: Check stats of yum
    stat:
      path: /etc/yum.conf
    register: pkg

  - name: Check if config file of yum is a symlink
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pkg_config_file_symlink: '{{ pkg.stat.lnk_target if pkg.stat.lnk_target is match("^/.*")
        else "/etc/yum.conf" | dirname ~ "/" ~ pkg.stat.lnk_target }}'
    when: pkg.stat.lnk_target is defined

  - name: Ensure GPG check Enabled for Local Packages (yum)
    ini_file:
      dest: '{{ pkg_config_file_symlink |  default("/etc/yum.conf") }}'
      section: main
      option: localpkg_gpgcheck
      value: 1
      no_extra_spaces: true
      create: true
  when: '"yum" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for All yum Package Repositories   [ref]

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:
gpgcheck=0
Rationale:
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA)."
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R15), 11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, 6.3.3, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153



sed -i 's/gpgcheck\s*=.*/gpgcheck=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/*

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Grep for yum repo section names
  shell: |
    set -o pipefail
    grep -HEr '^\[.+\]' -r /etc/yum.repos.d/
  register: repo_grep_results
  failed_when: repo_grep_results.rc not in [0, 1]
  changed_when: false
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - enable_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set gpgcheck=1 for each yum repo
  ini_file:
    path: '{{ item[0] }}'
    section: '{{ item[1] }}'
    option: gpgcheck
    value: '1'
    no_extra_spaces: true
  loop: '{{ repo_grep_results.stdout | regex_findall( ''(.+\.repo):\[(.+)\]\n?'' )
    }}'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - enable_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Ensure Oracle Linux GPG Key Installed   [ref]

To ensure the system can cryptographically verify base software packages come from Oracle (and to connect to the Unbreakable Linux Network to receive them), the Oracle GPG key must properly be installed. To install the Oracle GPG key, run:
$ sudo uln_register
If the system is not connected to the Internet, then install the Oracle GPG key from trusted media such as the Oracle installation CD-ROM or DVD. Assuming the disc is mounted in /media/cdrom, use the following command as the root user to import it into the keyring:
$ sudo rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle
Alternatively, the key may be pre-loaded during the Oracle installation. In such cases, the key can be installed by running the following command:
sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle
Rationale:
Changes to software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. The Oracle GPG key is necessary to cryptographically verify packages are from Oracle.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_oracle_gpgkey_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 2, 3, 9, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, CCI-001749, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, Req-6.2


# OL fingerprints below retrieved from: https://linux.oracle.com/security/gpg/#gpg
readonly OL_RELEASE_FINGERPRINT="3E6D826D3FBAB389C2F38E34BC4D06A08D8B756F"
readonly OL_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT="982231759C7467065D0CE9B2A7DD07088B4EFBE6"

FINGERPRINTS_REGEX="${OL_RELEASE_FINGERPRINT}"

if [[ -n "$OL_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT" ]]; then
    FINGERPRINTS_REGEX+="|${OL_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT}"
fi

# Location of the key we would like to import (once it's integrity verified)
readonly OL_RELEASE_KEY="/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle"

RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS=$(stat -c %a "$(dirname "$OL_RELEASE_KEY")")

# Verify /etc/pki/rpm-gpg directory permissions are safe
if [ "${RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS}" -le "755" ]
then
  # If they are safe, try to obtain fingerprints from the key file
  # (to ensure there won't be e.g. CRC error)
  
    readarray -t GPG_OUT < <(gpg --show-keys --with-fingerprint --with-colons "$OL_RELEASE_KEY" | grep -A1 "^pub" | grep "^fpr" | cut -d ":" -f 10)
  

  GPG_RESULT=$?
  # No CRC error, safe to proceed
  if [ "${GPG_RESULT}" -eq "0" ]
  then
    # Filter just hexadecimal fingerprints from gpg's output from
    # processing of a key file
    echo "${GPG_OUT[*]}" | grep -vE "$FINGERPRINTS_REGEX" || {
      # If $ OL_RELEASE_KEY file doesn't contain any keys with unknown fingerprint, import it
      rpm --import "${OL_RELEASE_KEY}"
    }
  fi
fi

Rule   Ensure Software Patches Installed   [ref]

If the system is joined to the ULN or a yum server, run the following command to install updates:
$ sudo yum update
If the system is not configured to use one of these sources, updates (in the form of RPM packages) can be manually downloaded from the ULN and installed using rpm.

NOTE: U.S. Defense systems are required to be patched within 30 days or sooner as local policy dictates.
Warning:  The OVAL feed of Oracle Linux 9 is not a XML file, which may not be understood by all scanners.
Rationale:
Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_security_patches_up_to_date
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R08), 18, 20, 4, 5.10.4.1, APO12.01, APO12.02, APO12.03, APO12.04, BAI03.10, DSS05.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, CCI-001227, 4.2.3, 4.2.3.12, 4.2.3.7, 4.2.3.9, A.12.6.1, A.14.2.3, A.16.1.3, A.18.2.2, A.18.2.3, SI-2(5), SI-2(c), CM-6(a), ID.RA-1, PR.IP-12, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-6.2, 6.3.3, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch


yum -y update

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
- name: Security patches are up to date
  package:
    name: '*'
    state: latest
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-2(5)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - patch_strategy
  - reboot_required
  - security_patches_up_to_date
  - skip_ansible_lint

Rule   Enable dnf-automatic Timer   [ref]

The dnf-automatic timer can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable dnf-automatic.timer
Rationale:
The dnf-automatic is an alternative command line interface (CLI) to dnf upgrade with specific facilities to make it suitable to be executed automatically and regularly from systemd timers, cron jobs and similar. The tool is controlled by dnf-automatic.timer SystemD timer.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_timer_dnf-automatic_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R8), SI-2(5), CM-6(a), SI-2(c), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'dnf-automatic.timer'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'dnf-automatic.timer'

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable timer dnf-automatic
  block:

  - name: Gather the package facts
    package_facts:
      manager: auto

  - name: Enable timer dnf-automatic
    systemd:
      name: dnf-automatic.timer
      enabled: 'yes'
      state: started
    when:
    - '"dnf-automatic" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-2(5)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - timer_dnf-automatic_enabled

Rule   Prefer to use a 64-bit Operating System when supported   [ref]

Prefer installation of 64-bit operating systems when the CPU supports it.
Warning:  There is no remediation besides installing a 64-bit operating system.
Rationale:
Use of a 64-bit operating system offers a few advantages, like a larger address space range for Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) and systematic presence of No eXecute and Execute Disable (NX/XD) protection bits.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_prefer_64bit_os
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R10)

Group   Account and Access Control   Group contains 11 groups and 23 rules
[ref]   In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Oracle Linux 9.
Group   Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   Group contains 4 groups and 11 rules
[ref]   PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.
Warning:  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
Warning:  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at https://fossies.org/linux/Linux-PAM-docs/doc/sag/Linux-PAM_SAG.pdf.
Group   Set Lockouts for Failed Password Attempts   Group contains 5 rules
[ref]   The pam_faillock PAM module provides the capability to lock out user accounts after a number of failed login attempts. Its documentation is available in /usr/share/doc/pam-VERSION/txts/README.pam_faillock.

Warning:  Locking out user accounts presents the risk of a denial-of-service attack. The lockout policy must weigh whether the risk of such a denial-of-service attack outweighs the benefits of thwarting password guessing attacks.

Rule   Limit Password Reuse   [ref]

Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords. This can be accomplished by using the remember option for the pam_unix or pam_pwhistory PAM modules.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report.
Warning:  Newer versions of authselect contain an authselect feature to easily and properly enable pam_pwhistory.so module. If this feature is not yet available in your system, an authselect custom profile must be used to avoid integrity issues in PAM files.
Rationale:
Preventing re-use of previous passwords helps ensure that a compromised password is not re-used by a user.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.1.1, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.5.8, CCI-000200, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(f), IA-5(1)(e), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.5, 8.3.7, SRG-OS-000077-GPOS-00045


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_unix_remember='2'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if authselect list-features minimal | grep -q with-pwhistory; then
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi
        authselect enable-feature with-pwhistory

        authselect apply-changes -b
    else
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
        if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"requisite"'\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*.*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            # Line matching group + control + module was not found. Check group + module.
            if [ "$(grep -cP '^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH")" -eq 1 ]; then
                # The control is updated only if one single line matches.
                sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_pwhistory.so.*)/\1'"requisite"' \2/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
            else
                LAST_MATCH_LINE=$(grep -nP "^password.*requisite.*pam_pwquality\.so" "$PAM_FILE_PATH" | tail -n 1 | cut -d: -f 1)
                if [ ! -z $LAST_MATCH_LINE ]; then
                    sed -i --follow-symlinks $LAST_MATCH_LINE' a password     '"requisite"'    pam_pwhistory.so' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
                else
                    echo 'password    '"requisite"'    pam_pwhistory.so' >> "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
                fi
            fi
        fi
    fi
else
    if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"requisite"'\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*.*' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"; then
        # Line matching group + control + module was not found. Check group + module.
        if [ "$(grep -cP '^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")" -eq 1 ]; then
            # The control is updated only if one single line matches.
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_pwhistory.so.*)/\1'"requisite"' \2/' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
        else
            LAST_MATCH_LINE=$(grep -nP "^password.*requisite.*pam_pwquality\.so" "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" | tail -n 1 | cut -d: -f 1)
            if [ ! -z $LAST_MATCH_LINE ]; then
                sed -i --follow-symlinks $LAST_MATCH_LINE' a password     '"requisite"'    pam_pwhistory.so' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
            else
                echo 'password    '"requisite"'    pam_pwhistory.so' >> "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
            fi
        fi
    fi
fi

PWHISTORY_CONF="/etc/security/pwhistory.conf"
if [ -f $PWHISTORY_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*remember\s*="
    line="remember = $var_password_pam_unix_remember"
    if ! grep -q $regex $PWHISTORY_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $PWHISTORY_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's|^\s*\(remember\s*=\s*\)\(\S\+\)|\1'"$var_password_pam_unix_remember"'|g' $PWHISTORY_CONF
    fi
    if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
        if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
            
            if ! authselect check; then
            echo "
            authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
            This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
            It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
            In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
            exit 1
            fi

            CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
            # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
            if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                
                authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                    authselect enable-feature $feature;
                done
                
                authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
            fi
            PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
            PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

            authselect apply-changes -b
        fi
        
    if grep -qP '^\s*password\s.*\bpam_pwhistory.so\s.*\bremember\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
        sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*pam_pwhistory.so.*)\bremember\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
    fi
        if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
            
            authselect apply-changes -b
        fi
    else
        echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
    fi
else
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"requisite"'\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*.*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
        # Line matching group + control + module was not found. Check group + module.
        if [ "$(grep -cP '^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH")" -eq 1 ]; then
            # The control is updated only if one single line matches.
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_pwhistory.so.*)/\1'"requisite"' \2/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        else
            echo 'password    '"requisite"'    pam_pwhistory.so' >> "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
    fi
    # Check the option
    if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"requisite"'\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*.*\sremember\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
        sed -i -E --follow-symlinks '/\s*password\s+'"requisite"'\s+pam_pwhistory.so.*/ s/$/ remember='"$var_password_pam_unix_remember"'/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
    else
        sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(\s*password\s+'"requisite"'\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s+.*)('"remember"'=)[[:alnum:]]+\s*(.*)/\1\2'"$var_password_pam_unix_remember"' \3/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
    fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_remember # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_remember: !!str 2
  tags:
    - always

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if system relies on authselect tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Collect the available authselect features
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect list-features minimal
  register: result_authselect_available_features
  changed_when: false
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Enable pam_pwhistory.so using authselect feature
  block:

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check integrity of authselect current profile
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect check
    register: result_authselect_check_cmd
    changed_when: false
    failed_when: false

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Informative message based on the authselect integrity
      check result
    ansible.builtin.assert:
      that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
      fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not
        selected or the selected profile is not intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
        is available.
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
      success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Get authselect current features
    ansible.builtin.shell:
      cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
    register: result_authselect_features
    changed_when: false
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure "with-pwhistory" feature is enabled using
      authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect enable-feature with-pwhistory
    register: result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-pwhistory")

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is not skipped
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is success
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  - result_authselect_available_features.stdout is search("with-pwhistory")
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Enable pam_pwhistory.so in appropriate PAM files
  block:

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the PAM file to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if system relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect custom profile is used if authselect
      is present
    block:

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check integrity of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Informative message based on the authselect integrity
        check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the current authselect profile as a local
        fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the new authselect custom profile as a local
        fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Get authselect current features to also enable
        them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if any custom profile with the same name
        was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Create an authselect custom profile based on the
        current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the authselect custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Change the PAM file to be edited according to the
        custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if expected PAM module line is present in {{
      pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'requisite' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*.*
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_line_present

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Include or update the PAM module line in {{ pam_file_path
      }}
    block:

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if required PAM module line is present in
        {{ pam_file_path }} with different control
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_line_other_control_present

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the correct control for the required PAM
        module line in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_pwhistory.so.*)
        replace: \1requisite \2
      register: result_pam_module_edit
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 1

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the required PAM module line is included
        in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        insertafter: ^password.*requisite.*pam_pwquality\.so
        line: password    requisite    pam_pwhistory.so
      register: result_pam_module_add
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 0 or result_pam_line_other_control_present.found
        > 1

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present is defined
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - |-
        (result_pam_module_add is defined and result_pam_module_add.changed)
         or (result_pam_module_edit is defined and result_pam_module_edit.changed)
    when:
    - result_pam_line_present.found is defined
    - result_pam_line_present.found == 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - |
    (result_authselect_available_features.stdout is defined and result_authselect_available_features.stdout is not search("with-pwhistory")) or result_authselect_available_features is not defined
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Check the presence of /etc/security/pwhistory.conf
    file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/pwhistory.conf
  register: result_pwhistory_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - pam_pwhistory.so parameters are configured in /etc/security/pwhistory.conf
    file
  block:

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the pam_pwhistory.so remember parameter in
      /etc/security/pwhistory.conf
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/security/pwhistory.conf
      regexp: ^\s*remember\s*=
      line: remember = {{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}
      state: present

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the pam_pwhistory.so remember parameter is
      removed from PAM files
    block:

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth file is present
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      register: result_pam_file_present

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check the proper remediation for the system
      block:

      - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the PAM file to be edited as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

      - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if system relies on authselect tool
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /usr/bin/authselect
        register: result_authselect_present

      - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect custom profile is used if authselect
          is present
        block:

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check integrity of authselect current profile
          ansible.builtin.command:
            cmd: authselect check
          register: result_authselect_check_cmd
          changed_when: false
          failed_when: false

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Informative message based on the authselect
            integrity check result
          ansible.builtin.assert:
            that:
            - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
            fail_msg:
            - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
            - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile
              was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
            - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect
              tool is available.
            - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
              demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
            success_msg:
            - authselect integrity check passed

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Get authselect current profile
          ansible.builtin.shell:
            cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
          register: result_authselect_profile
          changed_when: false
          when:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the current authselect profile as a
            local fact
          ansible.builtin.set_fact:
            authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
            authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          when:
          - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
          - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the new authselect custom profile as
            a local fact
          ansible.builtin.set_fact:
            authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
            authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
          when:
          - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
          - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Get authselect current features to also enable
            them in the custom profile
          ansible.builtin.shell:
            cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
          register: result_authselect_features
          changed_when: false
          when:
          - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
          - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if any custom profile with the same name
            was already created
          ansible.builtin.stat:
            path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
          register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
          changed_when: false
          when:
          - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Create an authselect custom profile based on
            the current profile
          ansible.builtin.command:
            cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
              }}
          when:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
          - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
          - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
          ansible.builtin.command:
            cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
          when:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
          - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
          - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
          - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the authselect custom profile is selected
          ansible.builtin.command:
            cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
          register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
          when:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
          - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
          - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
          - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Restore the authselect features in the custom
            profile
          ansible.builtin.command:
            cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
          loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
          register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
          when:
          - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
          - result_authselect_features is not skipped
          - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
          ansible.builtin.command:
            cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
          when:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
          - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
          - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

        - name: Limit Password Reuse - Change the PAM file to be edited according
            to the custom authselect profile
          ansible.builtin.set_fact:
            pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
              | basename }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

      - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the "remember" option from "pam_pwhistory.so"
          is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
        ansible.builtin.replace:
          dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
          regexp: (.*password.*pam_pwhistory.so.*)\bremember\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
          replace: \1\2
        register: result_pam_option_removal

      - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
        when:
        - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
        - result_pam_option_removal is changed
      when:
      - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pwhistory_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - pam_pwhistory.so parameters are configured in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the PAM file to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if system relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect custom profile is used if authselect
      is present
    block:

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check integrity of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Informative message based on the authselect integrity
        check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the current authselect profile as a local
        fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Define the new authselect custom profile as a local
        fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Get authselect current features to also enable
        them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if any custom profile with the same name
        was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Create an authselect custom profile based on the
        current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the authselect custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Change the PAM file to be edited according to the
        custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if expected PAM module line is present in {{
      pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'requisite' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*.*
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_line_present

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Include or update the PAM module line in {{ pam_file_path
      }}
    block:

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if required PAM module line is present in
        {{ pam_file_path }} with different control
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_line_other_control_present

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the correct control for the required PAM
        module line in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_pwhistory.so.*)
        replace: \1requisite \2
      register: result_pam_module_edit
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 1

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the required PAM module line is included
        in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        line: password    requisite    pam_pwhistory.so
      register: result_pam_module_add
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 0 or result_pam_line_other_control_present.found
        > 1

    - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present is defined
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - |-
        (result_pam_module_add is defined and result_pam_module_add.changed)
         or (result_pam_module_edit is defined and result_pam_module_edit.changed)
    when:
    - result_pam_line_present.found is defined
    - result_pam_line_present.found == 0

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if the required PAM module option is present
      in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'requisite' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s*.*\sremember\b
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_module_remember_option_present

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the "remember" PAM option for "pam_pwhistory.so"
      is included in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: ^(\s*password\s+{{ 'requisite' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_pwhistory.so.*)
      line: \1 remember={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}
      state: present
    register: result_pam_remember_add
    when:
    - result_pam_module_remember_option_present.found == 0

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the required value for "remember" PAM option
      from "pam_pwhistory.so" in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: ^(\s*password\s+{{ 'requisite' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_pwhistory.so\s+.*)(remember)=[0-9a-zA-Z]+\s*(.*)
      line: \1\2={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }} \3
    register: result_pam_remember_edit
    when:
    - result_pam_module_remember_option_present.found > 0

  - name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure authselect changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - (result_pam_remember_add is defined and result_pam_remember_add.changed) or
      (result_pam_remember_edit is defined and result_pam_remember_edit.changed)
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_pwhistory_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. Ensure that the file /etc/security/faillock.conf contains the following entry: deny = <count> Where count should be less than or equal to 3 and greater than 0. In order to avoid errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, also known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5.5.3, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, Req-8.1.6, 8.3.4, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny='3'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature with-faillock

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock\.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done

fi

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*deny\s*="
    line="deny = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's|^\s*\(deny\s*=\s*\)\(\S\+\)|\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'|g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if [ -e "$pam_file" ] ; then
            PAM_FILE_PATH="$pam_file"
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                if ! authselect check; then
                echo "
                authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
                This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
                It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
                In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
                exit 1
                fi

                CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
                # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
                if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                    ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                    authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                    authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                        authselect enable-feature $feature;
                    done
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
                fi
                PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "$pam_file")
                PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
            
        if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s.*\bpam_faillock.so\s.*\bdeny\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bdeny\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
        else
            echo "$pam_file was not found" >&2
        fi
    done
else
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*deny' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ deny='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ deny='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"deny"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*\)\('"deny"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies on authselect
    tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is present
  block:

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
      current profile
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect check
    register: result_authselect_check_cmd
    changed_when: false
    failed_when: false

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Informative message based
      on the authselect integrity check result
    ansible.builtin.assert:
      that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
      fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not
        selected or the selected profile is not intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
        is available.
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
      success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current features
    ansible.builtin.shell:
      cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
    register: result_authselect_features
    changed_when: false
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure "with-faillock" feature
      is enabled using authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    register: result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
      are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is not skipped
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is success
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is not present
  block:

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      is already enabled
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail)
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so preauth
      editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
      insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so authfail
      editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
      insertbefore: ^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so account
      section editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
      insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny: !!str 3
  tags:
    - always

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence of /etc/security/faillock.conf
    file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    deny parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*deny\s*=
    line: deny = {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
    state: present
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    deny parameter not in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper remediation
      for the system
    block:

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM file to
        be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
        on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect custom
        profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Informative message based
          on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Define the current authselect
          profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Define the new authselect
          custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if any custom profile
          with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Create an authselect
          custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the authselect
          custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Restore the authselect
          features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Change the PAM file to
          be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "deny" option
        from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bdeny\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
        are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper remediation
      for the system
    block:

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM file to
        be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
        on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect custom
        profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Informative message based
          on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Define the current authselect
          profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Define the new authselect
          custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if any custom profile
          with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Create an authselect
          custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the authselect
          custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Restore the authselect
          features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Change the PAM file to
          be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "deny" option
        from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bdeny\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
        are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    deny parameter in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      deny parameter is already enabled in pam files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*deny
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of pam_faillock.so
      preauth deny parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
      line: \1required\3 deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found == 0

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of pam_faillock.so
      authfail deny parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
      line: \1required\3 deny={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found == 0

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
      for pam_faillock.so preauth deny parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)(deny)=[0-9]+(.*)
      line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}\5
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found > 0

  - name: Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
      for pam_faillock.so authfail deny parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)(deny)=[0-9]+(.*)
      line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny }}\5
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_deny_parameter_is_present.found > 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out the root account after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. In order to avoid errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, also known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, CCI-002238, CCI-000044, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(b), IA-5(c), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature with-faillock

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock\.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done

fi

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*even_deny_root"
    line="even_deny_root"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if [ -e "$pam_file" ] ; then
            PAM_FILE_PATH="$pam_file"
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                if ! authselect check; then
                echo "
                authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
                This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
                It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
                In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
                exit 1
                fi

                CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
                # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
                if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                    ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                    authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                    authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                        authselect enable-feature $feature;
                    done
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
                fi
                PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "$pam_file")
                PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
            
        if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s.*\bpam_faillock.so\s.*\beven_deny_root\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\beven_deny_root\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
        else
            echo "$pam_file was not found" >&2
        fi
    done
else
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*even_deny_root' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ even_deny_root/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ even_deny_root/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system
    relies on authselect tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where
    authselect tool is present
  block:

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity
      of authselect current profile
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect check
    register: result_authselect_check_cmd
    changed_when: false
    failed_when: false

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Informative message
      based on the authselect integrity check result
    ansible.builtin.assert:
      that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
      fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not
        selected or the selected profile is not intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
        is available.
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
      success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
      current features
    ansible.builtin.shell:
      cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
    register: result_authselect_features
    changed_when: false
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure "with-faillock"
      feature is enabled using authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    register: result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
      changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is not skipped
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is success
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where
    authselect tool is not present
  block:

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      is already enabled
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail)
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
      preauth editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
      insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
      authfail editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
      insertbefore: ^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
      account section editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
      insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence
    of /etc/security/faillock.conf file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    even_deny_root parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*even_deny_root
    line: even_deny_root
    state: present
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    even_deny_root parameter not in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper
      remediation for the system
    block:

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM
        file to be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system
        relies on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        custom profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity
          of authselect current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Informative
          message based on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Define the
          current authselect profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Define the
          new authselect custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if any
          custom profile with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Create an
          authselect custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the
          authselect custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Restore the
          authselect features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Change the
          PAM file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "even_deny_root"
        option from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\beven_deny_root\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper
      remediation for the system
    block:

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM
        file to be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system
        relies on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        custom profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity
          of authselect current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Informative
          message based on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Define the
          current authselect profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Define the
          new authselect custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if any
          custom profile with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Create an
          authselect custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the
          authselect custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Restore the
          authselect features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Change the
          PAM file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "even_deny_root"
        option from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\beven_deny_root\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    even_deny_root parameter in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      even_deny_root parameter is already enabled in pam files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*even_deny_root
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_even_deny_root_parameter_is_present

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
      of pam_faillock.so preauth even_deny_root parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
      line: \1required\3 even_deny_root
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_even_deny_root_parameter_is_present.found == 0

  - name: Configure the root Account for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
      of pam_faillock.so authfail even_deny_root parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
      line: \1required\3 even_deny_root
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_even_deny_root_parameter_is_present.found == 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny_root
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

Utilizing pam_faillock.so, the fail_interval directive configures the system to lock out an account after a number of incorrect login attempts within a specified time period. Ensure that the file /etc/security/faillock.conf contains the following entry: fail_interval = <interval-in-seconds> where interval-in-seconds is 900 or greater. In order to avoid errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval='900'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature with-faillock

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock\.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done

fi

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*fail_interval\s*="
    line="fail_interval = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's|^\s*\(fail_interval\s*=\s*\)\(\S\+\)|\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'|g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if [ -e "$pam_file" ] ; then
            PAM_FILE_PATH="$pam_file"
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                if ! authselect check; then
                echo "
                authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
                This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
                It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
                In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
                exit 1
                fi

                CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
                # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
                if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                    ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                    authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                    authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                        authselect enable-feature $feature;
                    done
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
                fi
                PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "$pam_file")
                PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
            
        if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s.*\bpam_faillock.so\s.*\bfail_interval\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bfail_interval\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
        else
            echo "$pam_file was not found" >&2
        fi
    done
else
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*fail_interval' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ fail_interval='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ fail_interval='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"fail_interval"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*\)\('"fail_interval"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
    on authselect tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is present
  block:

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of
      authselect current profile
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect check
    register: result_authselect_check_cmd
    changed_when: false
    failed_when: false

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Informative message
      based on the authselect integrity check result
    ansible.builtin.assert:
      that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
      fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not
        selected or the selected profile is not intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
        is available.
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
      success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
      features
    ansible.builtin.shell:
      cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
    register: result_authselect_features
    changed_when: false
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure "with-faillock"
      feature is enabled using authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    register: result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
      are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is not skipped
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is success
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is not present
  block:

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      is already enabled
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail)
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
      preauth editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
      insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
      authfail editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
      insertbefore: ^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so
      account section editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
      insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval: !!str 900
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence of
    /etc/security/faillock.conf file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    fail_interval parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*fail_interval\s*=
    line: fail_interval = {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval }}
    state: present
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    fail_interval parameter not in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper remediation
      for the system
    block:

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM file
        to be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
        on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        custom profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity
          of authselect current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Informative message
          based on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Define the current
          authselect profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Define the new
          authselect custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if any custom
          profile with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Create an authselect
          custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the authselect
          custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Restore the authselect
          features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Change the PAM
          file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "fail_interval"
        option from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bfail_interval\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper remediation
      for the system
    block:

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM file
        to be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
        on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        custom profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity
          of authselect current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Informative message
          based on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Define the current
          authselect profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Define the new
          authselect custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect
          current features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if any custom
          profile with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Create an authselect
          custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the authselect
          custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Restore the authselect
          features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
          changes are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Change the PAM
          file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "fail_interval"
        option from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bfail_interval\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    fail_interval parameter in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      fail_interval parameter is already enabled in pam files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*fail_interval
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
      of pam_faillock.so preauth fail_interval parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
      line: \1required\3 fail_interval={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval
        }}
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found == 0

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion
      of pam_faillock.so authfail fail_interval parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
      line: \1required\3 fail_interval={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval
        }}
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found == 0

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired
      value for pam_faillock.so preauth fail_interval parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)(fail_interval)=[0-9]+(.*)
      line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval }}\5
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found > 0

  - name: Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired
      value for pam_faillock.so authfail fail_interval parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)(fail_interval)=[0-9]+(.*)
      line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval }}\5
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_fail_interval_parameter_is_present.found > 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out accounts during a specified time period after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. Ensure that the file /etc/security/faillock.conf contains the following entry: unlock_time=<interval-in-seconds> where interval-in-seconds is 900 or greater. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. In order to avoid any errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version. If unlock_time is set to 0, manual intervention by an administrator is required to unlock a user. This should be done using the faillock tool.
Warning:  If the system supports the new /etc/security/faillock.conf file but the pam_faillock.so parameters are defined directly in /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth, the remediation will migrate the unlock_time parameter to /etc/security/faillock.conf to ensure compatibility with authselect tool. The parameters deny and fail_interval, if used, also have to be migrated by their respective remediation.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5.5.3, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(b), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, Req-8.1.7, 8.3.4, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time='900'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature with-faillock

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
do
    if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+(preauth silent|authfail).*$' "$pam_file" ; then
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth silent' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*/i account     required      pam_faillock.so' "$pam_file"
    fi
    sed -Ei 's/(auth.*)(\[default=die\])(.*pam_faillock\.so)/\1required     \3/g' "$pam_file"
done

fi

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/system-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*unlock_time\s*="
    line="unlock_time = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's|^\s*\(unlock_time\s*=\s*\)\(\S\+\)|\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'|g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if [ -e "$pam_file" ] ; then
            PAM_FILE_PATH="$pam_file"
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                if ! authselect check; then
                echo "
                authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
                This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
                It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
                In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
                exit 1
                fi

                CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
                # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
                if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                    ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                    authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                    authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                        authselect enable-feature $feature;
                    done
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
                fi
                PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "$pam_file")
                PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
            
        if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s.*\bpam_faillock.so\s.*\bunlock_time\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bunlock_time\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
        else
            echo "$pam_file was not found" >&2
        fi
    done
else
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*unlock_time' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ unlock_time='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ unlock_time='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"unlock_time"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*\)\('"unlock_time"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies on
    authselect tool
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is present
  block:

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
      current profile
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect check
    register: result_authselect_check_cmd
    changed_when: false
    failed_when: false

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Informative message based
      on the authselect integrity check result
    ansible.builtin.assert:
      that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
      fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not
        selected or the selected profile is not intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
        is available.
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
      success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current features
    ansible.builtin.shell:
      cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
    register: result_authselect_features
    changed_when: false
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure "with-faillock" feature
      is enabled using authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect enable-feature with-faillock
    register: result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("with-faillock")

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
      are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is not skipped
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is success
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Remediation where authselect
    tool is not present
  block:

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      is already enabled
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail)
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_is_enabled

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so preauth
      editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth
      insertbefore: ^auth.*sufficient.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so authfail
      editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: auth        required      pam_faillock.so authfail
      insertbefore: ^auth.*required.*pam_deny\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Enable pam_faillock.so account
      section editing PAM files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      line: account     required      pam_faillock.so
      insertbefore: ^account.*required.*pam_unix\.so.*
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_is_enabled.found == 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time: !!str 900
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check the presence of /etc/security/faillock.conf
    file
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
  register: result_faillock_conf_check
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    unlock_time parameter in /etc/security/faillock.conf
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/security/faillock.conf
    regexp: ^\s*unlock_time\s*=
    line: unlock_time = {{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}
    state: present
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    unlock_time parameter not in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper remediation
      for the system
    block:

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM file to
        be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
        on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect custom
        profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Informative message
          based on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Define the current authselect
          profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Define the new authselect
          custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if any custom
          profile with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Create an authselect
          custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the authselect
          custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Restore the authselect
          features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Change the PAM file
          to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "unlock_time"
        option from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bunlock_time\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
        are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if /etc/pam.d/password-auth
      file is present
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    register: result_pam_file_present

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check the proper remediation
      for the system
    block:

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Define the PAM file to
        be edited as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if system relies
        on authselect tool
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /usr/bin/authselect
      register: result_authselect_present

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect custom
        profile is used if authselect is present
      block:

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check integrity of authselect
          current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect check
        register: result_authselect_check_cmd
        changed_when: false
        failed_when: false

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Informative message
          based on the authselect integrity check result
        ansible.builtin.assert:
          that:
          - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
          fail_msg:
          - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
          - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
            not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
          - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
            is available.
          - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
            demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
          success_msg:
          - authselect integrity check passed

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
        register: result_authselect_profile
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Define the current authselect
          profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Define the new authselect
          custom profile as a local fact
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
          authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Get authselect current
          features to also enable them in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.shell:
          cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
        register: result_authselect_features
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if any custom
          profile with the same name was already created
        ansible.builtin.stat:
          path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
        changed_when: false
        when:
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Create an authselect
          custom profile based on the current profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
            }}
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the authselect
          custom profile is selected
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
        register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
        - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Restore the authselect
          features in the custom profile
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
        loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
        register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
        when:
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_authselect_features is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
          are applied
        ansible.builtin.command:
          cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        when:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
        - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
        - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

      - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Change the PAM file
          to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
        ansible.builtin.set_fact:
          pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
            | basename }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the "unlock_time"
        option from "pam_faillock.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: (.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bunlock_time\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
        replace: \1\2
      register: result_pam_option_removal

    - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure authselect changes
        are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - result_pam_option_removal is changed
    when:
    - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the pam_faillock.so
    unlock_time parameter in PAM files
  block:

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Check if pam_faillock.so
      unlock_time parameter is already enabled in pam files
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
      regexp: .*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*unlock_time
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of
      pam_faillock.so preauth unlock_time parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)
      line: \1required\3 unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
        }}
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found == 0

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the inclusion of
      pam_faillock.so authfail unlock_time parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)
      line: \1required\3 unlock_time={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
        }}
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found == 0

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
      for pam_faillock.so preauth unlock_time parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so preauth.*)(unlock_time)=[0-9]+(.*)
      line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}\5
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found > 0

  - name: Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts - Ensure the desired value
      for pam_faillock.so authfail unlock_time parameter in auth section
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ item }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: (^\s*auth\s+)([\w\[].*\b)(\s+pam_faillock.so authfail.*)(unlock_time)=[0-9]+(.*)
      line: \1required\3\4={{ var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time }}\5
      state: present
    loop:
    - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    when:
    - result_pam_faillock_unlock_time_parameter_is_present.found > 0
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - not result_faillock_conf_check.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.8
  - NIST-800-53-AC-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.1.7
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Set Password Quality Requirements   Group contains 1 group and 5 rules
[ref]   The default pam_pwquality PAM module provides strength checking for passwords. It performs a number of checks, such as making sure passwords are not similar to dictionary words, are of at least a certain length, are not the previous password reversed, and are not simply a change of case from the previous password. It can also require passwords to be in certain character classes. The pam_pwquality module is the preferred way of configuring password requirements.

The man pages pam_pwquality(8) provide information on the capabilities and configuration of each.
Group   Set Password Quality Requirements with pam_pwquality   Group contains 5 rules
[ref]   The pam_pwquality PAM module can be configured to meet requirements for a variety of policies.

For example, to configure pam_pwquality to require at least one uppercase character, lowercase character, digit, and other (special) character, make sure that pam_pwquality exists in /etc/pam.d/system-auth:
password    requisite     pam_pwquality.so try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 authtok_type=
If no such line exists, add one as the first line of the password section in /etc/pam.d/system-auth. Next, modify the settings in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to match the following:
difok = 4
minlen = 14
dcredit = -1
ucredit = -1
lcredit = -1
ocredit = -1
maxrepeat = 3
The arguments can be modified to ensure compliance with your organization's security policy. Discussion of each parameter follows.

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's dcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of digits in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many digits. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each digit. Modify the dcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a digit in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring digits makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_dcredit
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000194, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, 8.3.6, 8.3.9, SRG-OS-000071-GPOS-00039


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_dcredit='-1'





if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s.*\bpam_pwquality.so\s.*\bdcredit\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bdcredit\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
fi


# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^dcredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_dcredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^dcredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^dcredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_dcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_dcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Check
    if /etc/pam.d/system-auth file is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Check
    the proper remediation for the system
  block:

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Define
      the PAM file to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Check
      if system relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Ensure
      authselect custom profile is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Check integrity of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Informative message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Define the current authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Define the new authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Get authselect current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Check if any custom profile with the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Create an authselect custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Ensure the authselect custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters -
        Change the PAM file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Ensure
      the "dcredit" option from "pam_pwquality.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path
      }}
    ansible.builtin.replace:
      dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: (.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bdcredit\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
      replace: \1\2
    register: result_pam_option_removal

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Ensure
      authselect changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - result_pam_option_removal is changed
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Ensure
    PAM variable dcredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*dcredit
    line: dcredit = {{ var_password_pam_dcredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's lcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of lowercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many lowercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each lowercase character. Modify the lcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a lowercase character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.
Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of lowercase characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_lcredit
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000193, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, 8.3.6, 8.3.9, SRG-OS-000070-GPOS-00038


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_lcredit='-1'





if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s.*\bpam_pwquality.so\s.*\blcredit\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\blcredit\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
fi


# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^lcredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_lcredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^lcredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^lcredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_lcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_lcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters -
    Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth file is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters -
    Check the proper remediation for the system
  block:

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
      - Define the PAM file to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
      - Check if system relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
      - Ensure authselect custom profile is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Check integrity of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Informative message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Define the current authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Define the new authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Get authselect current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Check if any custom profile with the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Create an authselect custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Ensure the authselect custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
        - Change the PAM file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
      - Ensure the "lcredit" option from "pam_pwquality.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path
      }}
    ansible.builtin.replace:
      dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: (.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\blcredit\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
      replace: \1\2
    register: result_pam_option_removal

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters
      - Ensure authselect changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - result_pam_option_removal is changed
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters -
    Ensure PAM variable lcredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*lcredit
    line: lcredit = {{ var_password_pam_lcredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's minlen parameter controls requirements for minimum characters required in a password. Add minlen=18 after pam_pwquality to set minimum password length requirements.
Rationale:
The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_minlen
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.1.1, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000205, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, 8.3.6, 8.3.9, SRG-OS-000078-GPOS-00046


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_minlen='18'





if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s.*\bpam_pwquality.so\s.*\bminlen\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bminlen\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
fi


# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^minlen")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_minlen"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^minlen\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^minlen\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_minlen
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_minlen # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_minlen: !!str 18
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    file is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_minlen
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Check the proper
    remediation for the system
  block:

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Define the
      PAM file to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Check if system
      relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure authselect
      custom profile is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Check integrity
        of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Informative
        message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Get authselect
        current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Define the
        current authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Define the
        new authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Get authselect
        current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Check if
        any custom profile with the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Create an
        authselect custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure the
        authselect custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Restore the
        authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Change the
        PAM file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure the
      "minlen" option from "pam_pwquality.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.replace:
      dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: (.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bminlen\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
      replace: \1\2
    register: result_pam_option_removal

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure authselect
      changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - result_pam_option_removal is changed
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_minlen
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure PAM variable
    minlen is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*minlen
    line: minlen = {{ var_password_pam_minlen }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_minlen
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ocredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of special (or "other") characters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many special characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each special character. Modify the ocredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal -1 to require use of a special character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of special characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ocredit
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-001619, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000266-GPOS-00101


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_ocredit='-1'





if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s.*\bpam_pwquality.so\s.*\bocredit\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bocredit\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
fi


# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^ocredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_ocredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^ocredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^ocredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ocredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ocredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters - Check
    if /etc/pam.d/system-auth file is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters - Check
    the proper remediation for the system
  block:

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters -
      Define the PAM file to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters -
      Check if system relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters -
      Ensure authselect custom profile is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Check integrity of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Informative message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Define the current authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Define the new authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Get authselect current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Check if any custom profile with the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Create an authselect custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Ensure the authselect custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters
        - Change the PAM file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters -
      Ensure the "ocredit" option from "pam_pwquality.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path
      }}
    ansible.builtin.replace:
      dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: (.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bocredit\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
      replace: \1\2
    register: result_pam_option_removal

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters -
      Ensure authselect changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - result_pam_option_removal is changed
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters - Ensure
    PAM variable ocredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ocredit
    line: ocredit = {{ var_password_pam_ocredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ucredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of uppercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many uppercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each uppercase character. Modify the ucredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of an uppercase character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ucredit
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R18), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000192, CCI-000193, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, 8.3.6, 8.3.9, SRG-OS-000069-GPOS-00037, SRG-OS-000070-GPOS-00038


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_ucredit='-1'





if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s.*\bpam_pwquality.so\s.*\bucredit\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bucredit\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
fi


# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^ucredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_ucredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^ucredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^ucredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ucredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ucredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters -
    Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth file is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters -
    Check the proper remediation for the system
  block:

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
      - Define the PAM file to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
      - Check if system relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
      - Ensure authselect custom profile is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Check integrity of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Informative message based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Define the current authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Define the new authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Get authselect current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Check if any custom profile with the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Create an authselect custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Ensure the authselect custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Restore the authselect features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
        - Change the PAM file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
      - Ensure the "ucredit" option from "pam_pwquality.so" is not present in {{ pam_file_path
      }}
    ansible.builtin.replace:
      dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: (.*password.*pam_pwquality.so.*)\bucredit\b=?[0-9a-zA-Z]*(.*)
      replace: \1\2
    register: result_pam_option_removal

  - name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters
      - Ensure authselect changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - result_pam_option_removal is changed
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters -
    Ensure PAM variable ucredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ucredit
    line: ucredit = {{ var_password_pam_ucredit }}
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.9
  - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Set Password Hashing Algorithm   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The system's default algorithm for storing password hashes in /etc/shadow is SHA-512. This can be configured in several locations.

Rule   Set PAM''s Password Hashing Algorithm   [ref]

The PAM system service can be configured to only store encrypted representations of passwords. In "/etc/pam.d/system-auth", the password section of the file controls which PAM modules execute during a password change. Set the pam_unix.so module in the password section to include the argument sha512, as shown below:
password    sufficient    pam_unix.so sha512 other arguments...

This will help ensure when local users change their passwords, hashes for the new passwords will be generated using the SHA-512 algorithm. This is the default.
Rationale:
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kepy in plain text.

This setting ensures user and group account administration utilities are configured to store only encrypted representations of passwords. Additionally, the crypt_style configuration option ensures the use of a strong hashing algorithm that makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_set_password_hashing_algorithm_systemauth
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R32), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.2, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.13.11, CCI-000196, CCI-000803, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0418, 1055, 1402, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(c), CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.1, 8.3.2, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041, SRG-OS-000120-GPOS-00061


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            # Line matching group + control + module was not found. Check group + module.
            if [ "$(grep -cP '^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_unix.so\s*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH")" -eq 1 ]; then
                # The control is updated only if one single line matches.
                sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_unix.so.*)/\1'"sufficient"' \2/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
            else
                echo 'password    '"sufficient"'    pam_unix.so' >> "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
            fi
        fi
        # Check the option
        if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*\ssha512\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks '/\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so.*/ s/$/ sha512/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.2
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - set_password_hashing_algorithm_systemauth

- name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth file
    is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.2
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - set_password_hashing_algorithm_systemauth

- name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check the proper remediation for the
    system
  block:

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Define the PAM file to be edited
      as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check if system relies on authselect
      tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure authselect custom profile
      is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check integrity of authselect current
        profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Informative message based on the
        authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Get authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Define the current authselect profile
        as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Define the new authselect custom
        profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Get authselect current features
        to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check if any custom profile with
        the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Create an authselect custom profile
        based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure the authselect custom profile
        is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Restore the authselect features
        in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Change the PAM file to be edited
        according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check if expected PAM module line
      is present in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_line_present

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Include or update the PAM module
      line in {{ pam_file_path }}
    block:

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check if required PAM module line
        is present in {{ pam_file_path }} with different control
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_unix.so\s*
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_line_other_control_present

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure the correct control for
        the required PAM module line in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_unix.so.*)
        replace: \1sufficient \2
      register: result_pam_module_edit
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 1

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure the required PAM module
        line is included in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        line: password    sufficient    pam_unix.so
      register: result_pam_module_add
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 0 or result_pam_line_other_control_present.found
        > 1

    - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure authselect changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present is defined
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - |-
        (result_pam_module_add is defined and result_pam_module_add.changed)
         or (result_pam_module_edit is defined and result_pam_module_edit.changed)
    when:
    - result_pam_line_present.found is defined
    - result_pam_line_present.found == 0

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Check if the required PAM module
      option is present in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*\ssha512\b
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_module_sha512_option_present

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure the "sha512" PAM option for
      "pam_unix.so" is included in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: ^(\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so.*)
      line: \1 sha512
      state: present
    register: result_pam_sha512_add
    when:
    - result_pam_module_sha512_option_present.found == 0

  - name: Set PAM's Password Hashing Algorithm - Ensure authselect changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - |-
      (result_pam_sha512_add is defined and result_pam_sha512_add.changed)
       or (result_pam_sha512_edit is defined and result_pam_sha512_edit.changed)
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.13.11
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.2
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - set_password_hashing_algorithm_systemauth
Group   Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   Group contains 3 groups and 5 rules
[ref]   Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.
Group   Set Password Expiration Parameters   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The file /etc/login.defs controls several password-related settings. Programs such as passwd, su, and login consult /etc/login.defs to determine behavior with regard to password aging, expiration warnings, and length. See the man page login.defs(5) for more information.

Users should be forced to change their passwords, in order to decrease the utility of compromised passwords. However, the need to change passwords often should be balanced against the risk that users will reuse or write down passwords if forced to change them too often. Forcing password changes every 90-360 days, depending on the environment, is recommended. Set the appropriate value as PASS_MAX_DAYS and apply it to existing accounts with the -M flag.

The PASS_MIN_DAYS (-m) setting prevents password changes for 7 days after the first change, to discourage password cycling. If you use this setting, train users to contact an administrator for an emergency password change in case a new password becomes compromised. The PASS_WARN_AGE (-W) setting gives users 7 days of warnings at login time that their passwords are about to expire.

For example, for each existing human user USER, expiration parameters could be adjusted to a 180 day maximum password age, 7 day minimum password age, and 7 day warning period with the following command:
$ sudo chage -M 180 -m 7 -W 7 USER
Group   Verify Proper Storage and Existence of Password Hashes   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   By default, password hashes for local accounts are stored in the second field (colon-separated) in /etc/shadow. This file should be readable only by processes running with root credentials, preventing users from casually accessing others' password hashes and attempting to crack them. However, it remains possible to misconfigure the system and store password hashes in world-readable files such as /etc/passwd, or to even store passwords themselves in plaintext on the system. Using system-provided tools for password change/creation should allow administrators to avoid such misconfiguration.

Rule   Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth   [ref]

Configure the number or rounds for the password hashing algorithm. This can be accomplished by using the rounds option for the pam_unix PAM module.

In file /etc/pam.d/password-auth append rounds=65536 to the pam_unix.so entry, as shown below:
password sufficient pam_unix.so ...existing_options... rounds=65536
The system's default number of rounds is 5000.
Warning:  Setting a high number of hashing rounds makes it more difficult to brute force the password, but requires more CPU resources to authenticate users.
Rationale:
Using a higher number of rounds makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R68), CCI-000196, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_unix_rounds='65536'



if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/password-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/password-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            # Line matching group + control + module was not found. Check group + module.
            if [ "$(grep -cP '^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_unix.so\s*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH")" -eq 1 ]; then
                # The control is updated only if one single line matches.
                sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_unix.so.*)/\1'"sufficient"' \2/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
            else
                echo 'password    '"sufficient"'    pam_unix.so' >> "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
            fi
        fi
        # Check the option
        if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*\srounds\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks '/\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so.*/ s/$/ rounds='"$var_password_pam_unix_rounds"'/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        else
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s+.*)('"rounds"'=)[[:alnum:]]+\s*(.*)/\1\2'"$var_password_pam_unix_rounds"' \3/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/password-auth was not found" >&2
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_rounds # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_rounds: !!str 65536
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check if /etc/pam.d/password-auth
    file is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check the proper remediation
    for the system
  block:

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Define the PAM file
      to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check if system
      relies on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure authselect
      custom profile is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check integrity
        of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Informative message
        based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Get authselect
        current profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Define the current
        authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Define the new
        authselect custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Get authselect
        current features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check if any custom
        profile with the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Create an authselect
        custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure the authselect
        custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Restore the authselect
        features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Change the PAM
        file to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check if expected
      PAM module line is present in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_line_present

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Include or update
      the PAM module line in {{ pam_file_path }}
    block:

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check if required
        PAM module line is present in {{ pam_file_path }} with different control
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_unix.so\s*
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_line_other_control_present

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure the correct
        control for the required PAM module line in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_unix.so.*)
        replace: \1sufficient \2
      register: result_pam_module_edit
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 1

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure the required
        PAM module line is included in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        line: password    sufficient    pam_unix.so
      register: result_pam_module_add
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 0 or result_pam_line_other_control_present.found
        > 1

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present is defined
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - |-
        (result_pam_module_add is defined and result_pam_module_add.changed)
         or (result_pam_module_edit is defined and result_pam_module_edit.changed)
    when:
    - result_pam_line_present.found is defined
    - result_pam_line_present.found == 0

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Check if the required
      PAM module option is present in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*\srounds\b
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_module_rounds_option_present

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure the "rounds"
      PAM option for "pam_unix.so" is included in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: ^(\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so.*)
      line: \1 rounds={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}
      state: present
    register: result_pam_rounds_add
    when:
    - result_pam_module_rounds_option_present.found == 0

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure the required
      value for "rounds" PAM option from "pam_unix.so" in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: ^(\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s+.*)(rounds)=[0-9a-zA-Z]+\s*(.*)
      line: \1\2={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }} \3
    register: result_pam_rounds_edit
    when:
    - result_pam_module_rounds_option_present.found > 0

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - password-auth - Ensure authselect
      changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - |-
      (result_pam_rounds_add is defined and result_pam_rounds_add.changed)
       or (result_pam_rounds_edit is defined and result_pam_rounds_edit.changed)
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_password_auth
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth   [ref]

Configure the number or rounds for the password hashing algorithm. This can be accomplished by using the rounds option for the pam_unix PAM module.

In file /etc/pam.d/system-auth append rounds=65536 to the pam_unix.so entry, as shown below:
password sufficient pam_unix.so ...existing_options... rounds=65536
The system's default number of rounds is 5000.
Warning:  Setting a high number of hashing rounds makes it more difficult to brute force the password, but requires more CPU resources to authenticate users.
Rationale:
Using a higher number of rounds makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R68), CCI-000196, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q pam; then

var_password_pam_unix_rounds='65536'


if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/system-auth" ] ; then
    PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        if ! authselect check; then
        echo "
        authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
        In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
        exit 1
        fi

        CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
        # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
        if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
            ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
            authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
            CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
            authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
            for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                authselect enable-feature $feature;
            done
            
            authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
        fi
        PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "/etc/pam.d/system-auth")
        PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
    if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            # Line matching group + control + module was not found. Check group + module.
            if [ "$(grep -cP '^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_unix.so\s*' "$PAM_FILE_PATH")" -eq 1 ]; then
                # The control is updated only if one single line matches.
                sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_unix.so.*)/\1'"sufficient"' \2/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
            else
                echo 'password    '"sufficient"'    pam_unix.so' >> "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
            fi
        fi
        # Check the option
        if ! grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*\srounds\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks '/\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so.*/ s/$/ rounds='"$var_password_pam_unix_rounds"'/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        else
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s+.*)('"rounds"'=)[[:alnum:]]+\s*(.*)/\1\2'"$var_password_pam_unix_rounds"' \3/' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
    if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
        
        authselect apply-changes -b
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/system-auth was not found" >&2
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_rounds # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_rounds: !!str 65536
  tags:
    - always

- name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check if /etc/pam.d/system-auth
    file is present
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  register: result_pam_file_present
  when: '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check the proper remediation
    for the system
  block:

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Define the PAM file
      to be edited as a local fact
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pam_file_path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check if system relies
      on authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.stat:
      path: /usr/bin/authselect
    register: result_authselect_present

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure authselect
      custom profile is used if authselect is present
    block:

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check integrity
        of authselect current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect check
      register: result_authselect_check_cmd
      changed_when: false
      failed_when: false

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Informative message
        based on the authselect integrity check result
      ansible.builtin.assert:
        that:
        - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
        fail_msg:
        - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
        - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was
          not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
        - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
          is available.
        - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific
          demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended.
        success_msg:
        - authselect integrity check passed

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Get authselect current
        profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }'
      register: result_authselect_profile
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Define the current
        authselect profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Define the new authselect
        custom profile as a local fact
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        authselect_current_profile: '{{ result_authselect_profile.stdout }}'
        authselect_custom_profile: custom/hardening
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_profile.stdout is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Get authselect current
        features to also enable them in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.shell:
        cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
      register: result_authselect_features
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check if any custom
        profile with the same name was already created
      ansible.builtin.stat:
        path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_authselect_custom_profile_present
      changed_when: false
      when:
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Create an authselect
        custom profile based on the current profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect create-profile hardening -b {{ authselect_current_profile
          }}
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - not result_authselect_custom_profile_present.stat.exists

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure the authselect
        custom profile is selected
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect select {{ authselect_custom_profile }}
      register: result_pam_authselect_select_profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - authselect_current_profile is not match("custom/")
      - authselect_custom_profile is not match(authselect_current_profile)

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Restore the authselect
        features in the custom profile
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect enable-feature {{ item }}
      loop: '{{ result_authselect_features.stdout_lines }}'
      register: result_pam_authselect_restore_features
      when:
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_authselect_features is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_select_profile is not skipped

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
      when:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
      - result_authselect_profile is not skipped
      - result_pam_authselect_restore_features is not skipped

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Change the PAM file
        to be edited according to the custom authselect profile
      ansible.builtin.set_fact:
        pam_file_path: /etc/authselect/{{ authselect_custom_profile }}/{{ pam_file_path
          | basename }}
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check if expected
      PAM module line is present in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_line_present

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Include or update
      the PAM module line in {{ pam_file_path }}
    block:

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check if required
        PAM module line is present in {{ pam_file_path }} with different control
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^\s*password\s+.*\s+pam_unix.so\s*
        state: absent
      check_mode: true
      changed_when: false
      register: result_pam_line_other_control_present

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure the correct
        control for the required PAM module line in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.replace:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        regexp: ^(\s*password\s+).*(\bpam_unix.so.*)
        replace: \1sufficient \2
      register: result_pam_module_edit
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 1

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure the required
        PAM module line is included in {{ pam_file_path }}
      ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
        dest: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
        line: password    sufficient    pam_unix.so
      register: result_pam_module_add
      when:
      - result_pam_line_other_control_present.found == 0 or result_pam_line_other_control_present.found
        > 1

    - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure authselect
        changes are applied
      ansible.builtin.command:
        cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
      when:
      - result_authselect_present is defined
      - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
      - |-
        (result_pam_module_add is defined and result_pam_module_add.changed)
         or (result_pam_module_edit is defined and result_pam_module_edit.changed)
    when:
    - result_pam_line_present.found is defined
    - result_pam_line_present.found == 0

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Check if the required
      PAM module option is present in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      regexp: ^\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*\srounds\b
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: result_pam_module_rounds_option_present

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure the "rounds"
      PAM option for "pam_unix.so" is included in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: ^(\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so.*)
      line: \1 rounds={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }}
      state: present
    register: result_pam_rounds_add
    when:
    - result_pam_module_rounds_option_present.found == 0

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure the required
      value for "rounds" PAM option from "pam_unix.so" in {{ pam_file_path }}
    ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
      path: '{{ pam_file_path }}'
      backrefs: true
      regexp: ^(\s*password\s+{{ 'sufficient' | regex_escape() }}\s+pam_unix.so\s+.*)(rounds)=[0-9a-zA-Z]+\s*(.*)
      line: \1\2={{ var_password_pam_unix_rounds }} \3
    register: result_pam_rounds_edit
    when:
    - result_pam_module_rounds_option_present.found > 0

  - name: Set number of Password Hashing Rounds - system-auth - Ensure authselect
      changes are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
    - |-
      (result_pam_rounds_add is defined and result_pam_rounds_add.changed)
       or (result_pam_rounds_edit is defined and result_pam_rounds_edit.changed)
  when:
  - '"pam" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_file_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_rounds_system_auth
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
Group   Restrict Root Logins   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

Rule   Direct root Logins Not Allowed   [ref]

To further limit access to the root account, administrators can disable root logins at the console by editing the /etc/securetty file. This file lists all devices the root user is allowed to login to. If the file does not exist at all, the root user can login through any communication device on the system, whether via the console or via a raw network interface. This is dangerous as user can login to the system as root via Telnet, which sends the password in plain text over the network. By default, Oracle Linux 9's /etc/securetty file only allows the root user to login at the console physically attached to the system. To prevent root from logging in, remove the contents of this file. To prevent direct root logins, remove the contents of this file by typing the following command:
$ sudo echo > /etc/securetty
Warning:  This rule only checks the /etc/securetty file existence and its content. If you need to restrict user access using the /etc/securetty file, make sure the pam_securetty.so PAM module is properly enabled in relevant PAM files.
Rationale:
Disabling direct root logins ensures proper accountability and multifactor authentication to privileged accounts. Users will first login, then escalate to privileged (root) access via su / sudo. This is required for FISMA Low and FISMA Moderate systems.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_direct_root_logins
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R19), 1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.1.1, 3.1.6, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, IA-2, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, 8.6.1


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

echo > /etc/securetty

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Direct root Logins Not Allowed
  copy:
    dest: /etc/securetty
    content: ''
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_direct_root_logins
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Secure Session Configuration Files for Login Accounts   Group contains 1 group and 6 rules
[ref]   When a user logs into a Unix account, the system configures the user's session by reading a number of files. Many of these files are located in the user's home directory, and may have weak permissions as a result of user error or misconfiguration. If an attacker can modify or even read certain types of account configuration information, they can often gain full access to the affected user's account. Therefore, it is important to test and correct configuration file permissions for interactive accounts, particularly those of privileged users such as root or system administrators.
Group   Ensure that Users Have Sensible Umask Values   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   The umask setting controls the default permissions for the creation of new files. With a default umask setting of 077, files and directories created by users will not be readable by any other user on the system. Users who wish to make specific files group- or world-readable can accomplish this by using the chmod command. Additionally, users can make all their files readable to their group by default by setting a umask of 027 in their shell configuration files. If default per-user groups exist (that is, if every user has a default group whose name is the same as that user's username and whose only member is the user), then it may even be safe for users to select a umask of 007, making it very easy to intentionally share files with groups of which the user is a member.

Rule   Ensure the Default Bash Umask is Set Correctly   [ref]

To ensure the default umask for users of the Bash shell is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/bashrc to read as follows:
umask 077
Rationale:
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R35), 18, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, 8.6.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q bash; then

var_accounts_user_umask='077'






grep -q "^\s*umask" /etc/bashrc && \
  sed -i -E -e "s/^(\s*umask).*/\1 $var_accounts_user_umask/g" /etc/bashrc
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/bashrc
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 077
  tags:
    - always

- name: Check if umask in /etc/bashrc is already set
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/bashrc
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask\s+.*
    state: absent
  check_mode: true
  changed_when: false
  register: umask_replace
  when: '"bash" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Replace user umask in /etc/bashrc
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    path: /etc/bashrc
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask(\s+).*
    replace: \g<1>umask\g<2>{{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when:
  - '"bash" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - umask_replace.found > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default umask is Appended Correctly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    path: /etc/bashrc
    line: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when:
  - '"bash" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - umask_replace.found == 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile   [ref]

To ensure the default umask controlled by /etc/profile is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/profile to read as follows:
umask 077
Note that /etc/profile also reads scrips within /etc/profile.d directory. These scripts are also valid files to set umask value. Therefore, they should also be considered during the check and properly remediated, if necessary.
Rationale:
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_profile
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R35), 18, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, 8.6.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

var_accounts_user_umask='077'


readarray -t profile_files < <(find /etc/profile.d/ -type f -name '*.sh' -or -name 'sh.local')

for file in "${profile_files[@]}" /etc/profile; do
  grep -qE '^[^#]*umask' "$file" && sed -i -E "s/^(\s*umask\s*)[0-7]+/\1$var_accounts_user_umask/g" "$file"
done

if ! grep -qrE '^[^#]*umask' /etc/profile*; then
  echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/profile
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 077
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Locate Profile
    Configuration Files Where umask Is Defined
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/profile.d
    patterns:
    - sh.local
    - '*.sh'
    contains: ^[\s]*umask\s+\d+
  register: result_profile_d_files
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Replace Existing
    umask Value in Files From /etc/profile.d
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask\s+\d+
    replace: \1umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  loop: '{{ result_profile_d_files.files }}'
  register: result_umask_replaced_profile_d
  when: result_profile_d_files.matched
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Ensure umask Is
    Set in /etc/profile if Not Already Set Elsewhere
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    mode: 420
    path: /etc/profile
    line: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when: not result_profile_d_files.matched
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Ensure umask Value
    For All Existing umask Definition in /etc/profile
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    path: /etc/profile
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask\s+\d+
    replace: \1umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  register: result_umask_replaced_profile
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Configure Polyinstantiation of /tmp Directories   [ref]

To configure polyinstantiated /tmp directories, first create the parent directories which will hold the polyinstantiation child directories. Use the following command:
$ sudo mkdir --mode 000 /tmp/tmp-inst
Then, add the following entry to /etc/security/namespace.conf:
/tmp     /tmp/tmp-inst/            level      root,adm
Rationale:
Polyinstantiation of temporary directories is a proactive security measure which reduces chances of attacks that are made possible by /tmp directories being world-writable.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_polyinstantiated_tmp
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R39)


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if ! ( [ "${container:-}" == "bwrap-osbuild" ] ); then

#!/bin/bash

# shellcheck disable=SC2174
mkdir -p --mode 000 /tmp/tmp-inst
chmod 000 /tmp/tmp-inst
chcon --reference=/tmp /tmp/tmp-inst

if ! grep -Eq '^\s*/tmp\s+/tmp/tmp-inst/\s+level\s+root,adm$' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
    if grep -Eq '^\s*/tmp\s+' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
        sed -i '/^\s*\/tmp/d' /etc/security/namespace.conf
    fi
    echo "/tmp     /tmp/tmp-inst/        level      root,adm" >> /etc/security/namespace.conf
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Configure Polyinstantiation of /var/tmp Directories   [ref]

To configure polyinstantiated /tmp directories, first create the parent directories which will hold the polyinstantiation child directories. Use the following command:
$ sudo mkdir --mode 000 /var/tmp/tmp-inst
Then, add the following entry to /etc/security/namespace.conf:
/var/tmp /var/tmp/tmp-inst/    level      root,adm
Rationale:
Polyinstantiation of temporary directories is a proactive security measure which reduces chances of attacks that are made possible by /var/tmp directories being world-writable.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_polyinstantiated_var_tmp
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R39)


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if ! ( [ "${container:-}" == "bwrap-osbuild" ] ); then

#!/bin/bash

# shellcheck disable=SC2174
mkdir -p --mode 000 /var/tmp/tmp-inst
chmod 000 /var/tmp/tmp-inst
chcon --reference=/var/tmp /var/tmp/tmp-inst

if ! grep -Eq '^\s*/var/tmp\s+/var/tmp/tmp-inst/\s+level\s+root,adm$' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
    if grep -Eq '^\s*/var/tmp\s+' /etc/security/namespace.conf ; then
        sed -i '/^\s*\/var\/tmp/d' /etc/security/namespace.conf
    fi
    echo "/var/tmp /var/tmp/tmp-inst/    level      root,adm" >> /etc/security/namespace.conf
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set Interactive Session Timeout   [ref]

Setting the TMOUT option in /etc/profile ensures that all user sessions will terminate based on inactivity. The value of TMOUT should be exported and read only. The TMOUT setting in a file loaded by /etc/profile, e.g. /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh should read as follows:
declare -xr TMOUT=600
Rationale:
Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_tmout
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R29), 1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.11, CCI-000057, CCI-001133, CCI-002361, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, AC-12, SC-10, AC-2(5), CM-6(a), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, 8.6.1, SRG-OS-000163-GPOS-00072, SRG-OS-000029-GPOS-00010


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

var_accounts_tmout='600'


# if 0, no occurence of tmout found, if 1, occurence found
tmout_found=0


for f in /etc/profile /etc/profile.d/*.sh; do

    if grep --silent '^[^#].*TMOUT' $f; then
        sed -i -E "s/^(.*)TMOUT\s*=\s*(\w|\$)*(.*)$/declare -xr TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout\3/g" $f
        tmout_found=1
    fi
done

if [ $tmout_found -eq 0 ]; then
        echo -e "\n# Set TMOUT to $var_accounts_tmout per security requirements" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        echo "declare -xr TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        echo "readonly TMOUT" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        echo "export TMOUT" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_tmout # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_tmout: !!str 600
  tags:
    - always

- name: Correct any occurrence of TMOUT in /etc/profile
  replace:
    path: /etc/profile
    regexp: ^[^#].*TMOUT=.*
    replace: declare -xr TMOUT={{ var_accounts_tmout }}
  register: profile_replaced
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
  - NIST-800-53-AC-12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-10
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_tmout
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interactive Session Timeout
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
    create: true
    regexp: TMOUT=
    line: declare -xr TMOUT={{ var_accounts_tmout }}
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
  - NIST-800-53-AC-12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-10
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_tmout
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Enable authselect   [ref]

Configure user authentication setup to use the authselect tool. If authselect profile is selected, the rule will enable the minimal profile.
Warning:  If the sudo authselect select command returns an error informing that the chosen profile cannot be selected, it is probably because PAM files have already been modified by the administrator. If this is the case, in order to not overwrite the desired changes made by the administrator, the current PAM settings should be investigated before forcing the selection of the chosen authselect profile.
Rationale:
Authselect is a successor to authconfig. It is a tool to select system authentication and identity sources from a list of supported profiles instead of letting the administrator manually build the PAM stack. That way, it avoids potential breakage of configuration, as it ships several tested profiles that are well tested and supported to solve different use-cases.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_enable_authselect
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R31), CCI-000213, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), AC-3, FIA_UAU.1, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227



var_authselect_profile='minimal'


authselect select "$var_authselect_profile"

if test "$?" -ne 0; then
    if rpm --quiet --verify pam; then
        authselect select --force "$var_authselect_profile"
    else
	echo "Files in the 'pam' package have been altered, so the authselect configuration won't be forced" >&2
    fi
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: XCCDF Value var_authselect_profile # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_authselect_profile: !!str minimal
  tags:
    - always

- name: Enable authselect - Select authselect profile
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect select "{{ var_authselect_profile }}"
  register: result_authselect_select
  failed_when: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Enable authselect - Verify if PAM has been altered
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: rpm -qV pam
  register: result_altered_authselect
  failed_when: false
  when: result_authselect_select.rc != 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Enable authselect - Informative message based on the authselect integrity
    check
  ansible.builtin.assert:
    that:
    - result_altered_authselect is skipped or result_altered_authselect.rc == 0
    fail_msg:
    - Files in the 'pam' package have been altered, so the authselect configuration
      won't be forced.
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Enable authselect - Force authselect profile select
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect select --force "{{ var_authselect_profile }}"
  when:
  - result_authselect_select.rc != 0
  - result_altered_authselect is skipped or result_altered_authselect.rc == 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
Group   System Accounting with auditd   Group contains 8 groups and 49 rules
[ref]   The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html-single/selinux_users_and_administrators_guide/index#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
Group   Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   Group contains 7 groups and 47 rules
[ref]   The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:
  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart
Group   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls   Group contains 14 rules
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R73), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, 10.3.4, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="chmod"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()



# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit chmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R73), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, 10.3.4, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="chown"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chown fchown fchownat lchown"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()



# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit chown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chown for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chown for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmod   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R73), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, 10.3.4, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fchmod"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()



# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fchmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmod for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmod for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmodat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
Identifiers and References

References:  BP28(R73), 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, 10.3.4, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fchmodat"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()



# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fchmodat tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmodat for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmodat
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmodat in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map