Guide to the Secure Configuration of Oracle Linux 9

with profile Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) Essential Eight
This profile contains configuration checks for Oracle Linux 9 that align to the Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) Essential Eight. A copy of the Essential Eight in Linux Environments guide can be found at the ACSC website: https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/hardening-linux-workstations-and-servers
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Oracle Linux 9. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleAustralian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) Essential Eight
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_e8

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:oracle:linux:9

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.73

  • draft (as of 2024-04-18)

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. Account and Access Control
    3. Configure Syslog
    4. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    5. File Permissions and Masks
    6. SELinux
  2. Services
    1. Avahi Server
    2. Application Whitelisting Daemon
    3. Obsolete Services
    4. Proxy Server
    5. SSH Server
  3. System Accounting with auditd
    1. Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing
    2. Configure auditd Data Retention

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Oracle Linux 9   Group contains 44 groups and 94 rules
Group   System Settings   Group contains 23 groups and 44 rules
[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.
Group   Installing and Maintaining Software   Group contains 7 groups and 15 rules
[ref]   The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.
Group   System and Software Integrity   Group contains 3 groups and 5 rules
[ref]   System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.
Group   Software Integrity Checking   Group contains 1 group and 3 rules
[ref]   Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.
Group   Verify Integrity with RPM   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   The RPM package management system includes the ability to verify the integrity of installed packages by comparing the installed files with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the RPM database. Although an attacker could corrupt the RPM database (analogous to attacking the AIDE database as described above), this check can still reveal modification of important files. To list which files on the system differ from what is expected by the RPM database:
$ rpm -qVa
See the man page for rpm to see a complete explanation of each column.

Rule   Verify File Hashes with RPM   [ref]

Without cryptographic integrity protections, system executables and files can be altered by unauthorized users without detection. The RPM package management system can check the hashes of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. To verify that the cryptographic hash of system files and commands matches vendor values, run the following command to list which files on the system have hashes that differ from what is expected by the RPM database:
$ rpm -Va --noconfig | grep '^..5'
If the file was not expected to change, investigate the cause of the change using audit logs or other means. The package can then be reinstalled to restore the file. Run the following command to determine which package owns the file:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
          
The package can be reinstalled from a yum repository using the command:
$ sudo yum reinstall PACKAGENAME
          
Alternatively, the package can be reinstalled from trusted media using the command:
$ sudo rpm -Uvh PACKAGENAME
          
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of packages present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of installed packages can be affected.
Rationale:
The hashes of important files like system executables should match the information given by the RPM database. Executables with erroneous hashes could be a sign of nefarious activity on the system.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rpm_verify_hashes
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.3.8, 3.4.1, CCI-000366, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-6(d), CM-6(c), SI-7, SI-7(1), SI-7(6), AU-9(3), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 11.5.2


Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: 'Set fact: Package manager reinstall command'
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: yum reinstall -y
  when: ansible_distribution in [ "Fedora", "RedHat", "CentOS", "OracleLinux" ]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: 'Set fact: Package manager reinstall command (zypper)'
  set_fact:
    package_manager_reinstall_cmd: zypper in -f -y
  when: ansible_distribution == "SLES"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: Read files with incorrect hash
  command: rpm -Va --nodeps --nosize --nomtime --nordev --nocaps --nolinkto --nouser
    --nogroup --nomode --noghost --noconfig
  register: files_with_incorrect_hash
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: files_with_incorrect_hash.rc > 1
  check_mode: false
  when: (package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: Create list of packages
  command: rpm -qf "{{ item }}"
  with_items: '{{ files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines | map(''regex_findall'',
    ''^[.]+[5]+.* (\/.*)'', ''\1'') | map(''join'') | select(''match'', ''(\/.*)'')
    | list | unique }}'
  register: list_of_packages
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  when:
  - files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines is defined
  - (files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes

- name: Reinstall packages of files with incorrect hash
  command: '{{ package_manager_reinstall_cmd }} ''{{ item }}'''
  with_items: '{{ list_of_packages.results | map(attribute=''stdout_lines'') | list
    | unique }}'
  when:
  - files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines is defined
  - (package_manager_reinstall_cmd is defined and (files_with_incorrect_hash.stdout_lines
    | length > 0))
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_hashes


# Find which files have incorrect hash (not in /etc, because of the system related config files) and then get files names
files_with_incorrect_hash="$(rpm -Va --noconfig | grep -E '^..5' | awk '{print $NF}' )"

if [ -n "$files_with_incorrect_hash" ]; then
    # From files names get package names and change newline to space, because rpm writes each package to new line
    packages_to_reinstall="$(rpm -qf $files_with_incorrect_hash | tr '\n' ' ')"

    
    yum reinstall -y $packages_to_reinstall
    
fi

Rule   Verify and Correct Ownership with RPM   [ref]

The RPM package management system can check file ownership permissions of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. After locating a file with incorrect permissions, which can be found with:
rpm -Va | awk '{ if (substr($0,6,1)=="U" || substr($0,7,1)=="G") print $NF }'
run the following command to determine which package owns it:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
          
Next, run the following command to reset its permissions to the correct values:
$ sudo rpm --setugids PACKAGENAME
          
Warning:  Profiles may require that specific files be owned by root while the default owner defined by the vendor is different. Such files will be reported as a finding and need to be evaluated according to your policy and deployment environment.
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of packages present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of installed packages can be affected.
Rationale:
Ownership of binaries and configuration files that is incorrect could allow an unauthorized user to gain privileges that they should not have. The ownership set by the vendor should be maintained. Any deviations from this baseline should be investigated.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rpm_verify_ownership
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 6, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, APO11.04, BAI03.05, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, MEA02.01, 3.3.8, 3.4.1, CCI-001494, CCI-001496, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.1, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 5.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-003-8 R6, CIP-007-3 R4, CIP-007-3 R4.1, CIP-007-3 R4.2, CM-6(d), CM-6(c), SI-7, SI-7(1), SI-7(6), AU-9(3), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-1, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000256-GPOS-00097, SRG-OS-000257-GPOS-00098, SRG-OS-000278-GPOS-00108, 11.5.2


Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read list of files with incorrect ownership
  command: rpm -Va --nodeps --nosignature --nofiledigest --nosize --nomtime --nordev
    --nocaps --nolinkto --nomode
  register: files_with_incorrect_ownership
  failed_when: files_with_incorrect_ownership.rc > 1
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_ownership

- name: Create list of packages
  command: rpm -qf "{{ item }}"
  with_items: '{{ files_with_incorrect_ownership.stdout_lines | map(''regex_findall'',
    ''^[.]+[U|G]+.* (\/.*)'', ''\1'') | map(''join'') | select(''match'', ''(\/.*)'')
    | list | unique }}'
  register: list_of_packages
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  when: (files_with_incorrect_ownership.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_ownership

- name: Correct file ownership with RPM
  command: rpm --setugids '{{ item }}'
  with_items: '{{ list_of_packages.results | map(attribute=''stdout_lines'') | list
    | unique }}'
  when: (files_with_incorrect_ownership.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_ownership

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

# Declare array to hold set of RPM packages we need to correct permissions for
declare -A SETPERMS_RPM_DICT

# Create a list of files on the system having permissions different from what
# is expected by the RPM database
readarray -t FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS < <(rpm -Va --nofiledigest | awk '{ if (substr($0,6,1)=="U" || substr($0,7,1)=="G") print $NF }')

for FILE_PATH in "${FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS[@]}"
do
        RPM_PACKAGE=$(rpm -qf "$FILE_PATH")
	# Use an associative array to store packages as it's keys, not having to care about duplicates.
	SETPERMS_RPM_DICT["$RPM_PACKAGE"]=1
done

# For each of the RPM packages left in the list -- reset its permissions to the
# correct values
for RPM_PACKAGE in "${!SETPERMS_RPM_DICT[@]}"
do
        rpm --setugids "${RPM_PACKAGE}"
done

Rule   Verify and Correct File Permissions with RPM   [ref]

The RPM package management system can check file access permissions of installed software packages, including many that are important to system security. Verify that the file permissions of system files and commands match vendor values. Check the file permissions with the following command:
$ sudo rpm -Va | awk '{ if (substr($0,2,1)=="M") print $NF }'
Output indicates files that do not match vendor defaults. After locating a file with incorrect permissions, run the following command to determine which package owns it:
$ rpm -qf FILENAME
          

Next, run the following command to reset its permissions to the correct values:
$ sudo rpm --setperms PACKAGENAME
          
Warning:  Profiles may require that specific files have stricter file permissions than defined by the vendor. Such files will be reported as a finding and need to be evaluated according to your policy and deployment environment.
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of packages present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of installed packages can be affected.
Rationale:
Permissions on system binaries and configuration files that are too generous could allow an unauthorized user to gain privileges that they should not have. The permissions set by the vendor should be maintained. Any deviations from this baseline should be investigated.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_rpm_verify_permissions
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 6, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, APO11.04, BAI03.05, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, MEA02.01, 3.3.8, 3.4.1, CCI-001493, CCI-001494, CCI-001495, CCI-001496, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.1, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 5.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-003-8 R6, CIP-007-3 R4, CIP-007-3 R4.1, CIP-007-3 R4.2, CM-6(d), CM-6(c), SI-7, SI-7(1), SI-7(6), AU-9(3), CM-6(a), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-1, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000256-GPOS-00097, SRG-OS-000257-GPOS-00098, SRG-OS-000258-GPOS-00099, SRG-OS-000278-GPOS-00108, 11.5.2


Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read list of files with incorrect permissions
  command: rpm -Va --nodeps --nosignature --nofiledigest --nosize --nomtime --nordev
    --nocaps --nolinkto --nouser --nogroup
  register: files_with_incorrect_permissions
  failed_when: files_with_incorrect_permissions.rc > 1
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_permissions

- name: Create list of packages
  command: rpm -qf "{{ item }}"
  with_items: '{{ files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines | map(''regex_findall'',
    ''^[.]+[M]+.* (\/.*)'', ''\1'') | map(''join'') | select(''match'', ''(\/.*)'')
    | list | unique }}'
  register: list_of_packages
  changed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  when: (files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_permissions

- name: Correct file permissions with RPM
  command: rpm --setperms '{{ item }}'
  with_items: '{{ list_of_packages.results | map(attribute=''stdout_lines'') | list
    | unique }}'
  when: (files_with_incorrect_permissions.stdout_lines | length > 0)
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.3.8
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(c)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(d)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(6)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - high_complexity
  - high_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - rpm_verify_permissions

Complexity:high
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

# Declare array to hold set of RPM packages we need to correct permissions for
declare -A SETPERMS_RPM_DICT

# Create a list of files on the system having permissions different from what
# is expected by the RPM database
readarray -t FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS < <(rpm -Va --nofiledigest | awk '{ if (substr($0,2,1)=="M") print $NF }')

for FILE_PATH in "${FILES_WITH_INCORRECT_PERMS[@]}"
do
        # NOTE: some files maybe controlled by more then one package
        readarray -t RPM_PACKAGES < <(rpm -qf "${FILE_PATH}")
        for RPM_PACKAGE in "${RPM_PACKAGES[@]}"
        do
                # Use an associative array to store packages as it's keys, not having to care about duplicates.
                SETPERMS_RPM_DICT["$RPM_PACKAGE"]=1
        done
done

# For each of the RPM packages left in the list -- reset its permissions to the
# correct values
for RPM_PACKAGE in "${!SETPERMS_RPM_DICT[@]}"
do
	rpm --restore "${RPM_PACKAGE}"
done
Group   System Cryptographic Policies   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   Linux has the capability to centrally configure cryptographic polices. The command update-crypto-policies is used to set the policy applicable for the various cryptographic back-ends, such as SSL/TLS libraries. The configured cryptographic policies will be the default policy used by these backends unless the application user configures them otherwise. When the system has been configured to use the centralized cryptographic policies, the administrator is assured that any application that utilizes the supported backends will follow a policy that adheres to the configured profile. Currently the supported backends are:
  • GnuTLS library
  • OpenSSL library
  • NSS library
  • OpenJDK
  • Libkrb5
  • BIND
  • OpenSSH
Applications and languages which rely on any of these backends will follow the system policies as well. Examples are apache httpd, nginx, php, and others.

Rule   Configure System Cryptography Policy   [ref]

To configure the system cryptography policy to use ciphers only from the DEFAULT:NO-SHA1 policy, run the following command:
$ sudo update-crypto-policies --set DEFAULT:NO-SHA1
         
The rule checks if settings for selected crypto policy are configured as expected. Configuration files in the /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends are either symlinks to correct files provided by Crypto-policies package or they are regular files in case crypto policy customizations are applied. Crypto policies may be customized by crypto policy modules, in which case it is delimited from the base policy using a colon.
Warning:  The system needs to be rebooted for these changes to take effect.
Warning:  System Crypto Modules must be provided by a vendor that undergoes FIPS-140 certifications. FIPS-140 is applicable to all Federal agencies that use cryptographic-based security systems to protect sensitive information in computer and telecommunication systems (including voice systems) as defined in Section 5131 of the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, Public Law 104-106. This standard shall be used in designing and implementing cryptographic modules that Federal departments and agencies operate or are operated for them under contract. See https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/NIST.FIPS.140-2.pdf To meet this, the system has to have cryptographic software provided by a vendor that has undergone this certification. This means providing documentation, test results, design information, and independent third party review by an accredited lab. While open source software is capable of meeting this, it does not meet FIPS-140 unless the vendor submits to this process.
Rationale:
Centralized cryptographic policies simplify applying secure ciphers across an operating system and the applications that run on that operating system. Use of weak or untested encryption algorithms undermines the purposes of utilizing encryption to protect data.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 1446, CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1, AC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, SC-12(2), SC-12(3), FCS_COP.1(1), FCS_COP.1(2), FCS_COP.1(3), FCS_COP.1(4), FCS_CKM.1, FCS_CKM.2, FCS_TLSC_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000396-GPOS-00176, SRG-OS-000393-GPOS-00173, SRG-OS-000394-GPOS-00174, 2.2.7


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_system_crypto_policy # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_system_crypto_policy: !!str DEFAULT:NO-SHA1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure System Cryptography Policy
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/crypto-policies/config
    regexp: ^(?!#)(\S+)$
    line: '{{ var_system_crypto_policy }}'
    create: true
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.7
  - configure_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that Crypto Policy is Set (runtime)
  command: /usr/bin/update-crypto-policies --set {{ var_system_crypto_policy }}
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.7
  - configure_crypto_policy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy


var_system_crypto_policy='DEFAULT:NO-SHA1'


stderr_of_call=$(update-crypto-policies --set ${var_system_crypto_policy} 2>&1 > /dev/null)
rc=$?

if test "$rc" = 127; then
	echo "$stderr_of_call" >&2
	echo "Make sure that the script is installed on the remediated system." >&2
	echo "See output of the 'dnf provides update-crypto-policies' command" >&2
	echo "to see what package to (re)install" >&2

	false  # end with an error code
elif test "$rc" != 0; then
	echo "Error invoking the update-crypto-policies script: $stderr_of_call" >&2
	false  # end with an error code
fi

Rule   Configure SSH to use System Crypto Policy   [ref]

Crypto Policies provide a centralized control over crypto algorithms usage of many packages. SSH is supported by crypto policy, but the SSH configuration may be set up to ignore it. To check that Crypto Policies settings are configured correctly, ensure that the CRYPTO_POLICY variable is either commented or not set at all in the /etc/sysconfig/sshd.
Rationale:
Overriding the system crypto policy makes the behavior of the SSH service violate expectations, and makes system configuration more fragmented.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_configure_ssh_crypto_policy
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-001453, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), CIP-003-8 R4.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R7.1, AC-17(a), AC-17(2), CM-6(a), MA-4(6), SC-13, FCS_SSH_EXT.1, FCS_SSHS_EXT.1, FCS_SSHC_EXT.1, Req-2.2, SRG-OS-000250-GPOS-00093, 2.2.7


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: Configure SSH to use System Crypto Policy
  lineinfile:
    dest: /etc/sysconfig/sshd
    state: absent
    regexp: (?i)^\s*CRYPTO_POLICY.*$
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(2)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-4(6)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-13
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.7
  - configure_ssh_crypto_policy
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required


SSH_CONF="/etc/sysconfig/sshd"

sed -i "/^\s*CRYPTO_POLICY.*$/Id" $SSH_CONF
Group   Sudo   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   Sudo, which stands for "su 'do'", provides the ability to delegate authority to certain users, groups of users, or system administrators. When configured for system users and/or groups, Sudo can allow a user or group to execute privileged commands that normally only root is allowed to execute.

For more information on Sudo and addition Sudo configuration options, see https://www.sudo.ws.

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo !authenticate   [ref]

The sudo !authenticate option, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the !authenticate option does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_remove_no_authenticate
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

- name: Remove lines containing !authenticate from sudoers files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "!authenticate" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo NOPASSWD   [ref]

The sudo NOPASSWD tag, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the NOPASSWD tag does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_remove_nopasswd
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_nopasswd

- name: Remove lines containing NOPASSWD from sudoers files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_nopasswd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "NOPASSWD" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo   [ref]

The sudo NOPASSWD and !authenticate option, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that NOPASSWD and/or !authenticate do not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/."
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_require_authentication
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

- name: Remove lines containing NOPASSWD from sudoers files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

- name: Remove lines containing !authenticate from sudoers files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "NOPASSWD" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "!authenticate" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done
Group   System Tooling / Utilities   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The following checks evaluate the system for recommended base packages -- both for installation and removal.

Rule   Install rear Package   [ref]

The rear package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install rear
Rationale:
rear contains the Relax-and-Recover (ReaR) utility. ReaR produces a bootable image of a system and restores from backup using this image.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_rear_installed
Identifiers and References


[[packages]]
name = "rear"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure rear is installed
  package:
    name: rear
    state: present
  when: not ( ( ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" and ansible_distribution == 'OracleLinux'
    and ansible_distribution_version is version('9.0', '>=') ) or ( ansible_architecture
    == "aarch64" and ansible_distribution == 'RedHat' and ansible_distribution_version
    is version('9.0', '>=') ) or ( ansible_distribution == 'RedHat' and ansible_distribution_version
    is version('8.4', '<=') and ansible_architecture == "s390x" ) ) )
  tags:
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_rear_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_rear

class install_rear {
  package { 'rear':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

package --add=rear

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if ! ( ( ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease && grep -qP "^ID=[\"']?ol[\"']?$" "/etc/os-release" && { real="$(grep -P "^VERSION_ID=[\"']?[\w.]+[\"']?$" /etc/os-release | sed "s/^VERSION_ID=[\"']\?\([^\"']\+\)[\"']\?$/\1/")"; expected="9.0"; printf "%s\n%s" "$expected" "$real" | sort -VC; } ) || ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease && grep -qP "^ID=[\"']?rhel[\"']?$" "/etc/os-release" && { real="$(grep -P "^VERSION_ID=[\"']?[\w.]+[\"']?$" /etc/os-release | sed "s/^VERSION_ID=[\"']\?\([^\"']\+\)[\"']\?$/\1/")"; expected="9.0"; printf "%s\n%s" "$expected" "$real" | sort -VC; } ) || ( grep -qP "^ID=[\"']?rhel[\"']?$" "/etc/os-release" && { real="$(grep -P "^VERSION_ID=[\"']?[\w.]+[\"']?$" /etc/os-release | sed "s/^VERSION_ID=[\"']\?\([^\"']\+\)[\"']\?$/\1/")"; expected="8.4"; printf "%s\n%s" "$real" "$expected" | sort -VC; } && grep -q s390x /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ) ) ); then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "rear" ; then
    yum install -y "rear"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Updating Software   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   The yum command line tool is used to install and update software packages. The system also provides a graphical software update tool in the System menu, in the Administration submenu, called Software Update.

Oracle Linux 9 systems contain an installed software catalog called the RPM database, which records metadata of installed packages. Consistently using yum or the graphical Software Update for all software installation allows for insight into the current inventory of installed software on the system.

Rule   Configure dnf-automatic to Install Only Security Updates   [ref]

To configure dnf-automatic to install only security updates automatically, set upgrade_type to security under [commands] section in /etc/dnf/automatic.conf.
Rationale:
By default, dnf-automatic installs all available updates. Reducing the amount of updated packages only to updates that were issued as a part of a security advisory increases the system stability.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dnf-automatic_security_updates_only
Identifiers and References

References:  SI-2(5), CM-6(a), SI-2(c), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000191-GPOS-00080, R61



found=false

# set value in all files if they contain section or key
for f in $(echo -n "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf"); do
    if [ ! -e "$f" ]; then
        continue
    fi

    # find key in section and change value
    if grep -qzosP "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]([^\n\[]*\n+)+?[[:space:]]*upgrade_type" "$f"; then
            sed -i "s/upgrade_type[^(\n)]*/upgrade_type = security/" "$f"
            found=true

    # find section and add key = value to it
    elif grep -qs "[[:space:]]*\[commands\]" "$f"; then
            sed -i "/[[:space:]]*\[commands\]/a upgrade_type = security" "$f"
            found=true
    fi
done

# if section not in any file, append section with key = value to FIRST file in files parameter
if ! $found ; then
    file=$(echo "/etc/dnf/automatic.conf" | cut -f1 -d ' ')
    mkdir -p "$(dirname "$file")"
    echo -e "[commands]\nupgrade_type = security" >> "$file"
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled In Main yum Configuration   [ref]

The gpgcheck option controls whether RPM packages' signatures are always checked prior to installation. To configure yum to check package signatures before installing them, ensure the following line appears in /etc/yum.conf in the [main] section:
gpgcheck=1
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor.
Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA).
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, R59, 6.3.3


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure GPG check is globally activated
  ini_file:
    dest: /etc/yum.conf
    section: main
    option: gpgcheck
    value: 1
    no_extra_spaces: true
    create: false
  when: '"yum" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - configure_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_globally_activated
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q yum; then

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^gpgcheck")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^gpgcheck\\>" "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^gpgcheck\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/yum.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/yum.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/yum.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/yum.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for Local Packages   [ref]

yum should be configured to verify the signature(s) of local packages prior to installation. To configure yum to verify signatures of local packages, set the localpkg_gpgcheck to 1 in /etc/yum.conf.
Rationale:
Changes to any software components can have significant effects to the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered and has been provided by a trusted vendor.

Accordingly, patches, service packs, device drivers, or operating system components must be signed with a certificate recognized and approved by the organization.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-11(a), CM-11(b), CM-6(a), CM-5(3), SA-12, SA-12(10), PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, R59


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:unknown
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

- name: Ensure GPG check Enabled for Local Packages (yum)
  block:

  - name: Check stats of yum
    stat:
      path: /etc/yum.conf
    register: pkg

  - name: Check if config file of yum is a symlink
    ansible.builtin.set_fact:
      pkg_config_file_symlink: '{{ pkg.stat.lnk_target if pkg.stat.lnk_target is match("^/.*")
        else "/etc/yum.conf" | dirname ~ "/" ~ pkg.stat.lnk_target }}'
    when: pkg.stat.lnk_target is defined

  - name: Ensure GPG check Enabled for Local Packages (yum)
    ini_file:
      dest: '{{ pkg_config_file_symlink |  default("/etc/yum.conf") }}'
      section: main
      option: localpkg_gpgcheck
      value: 1
      no_extra_spaces: true
      create: true
  when: '"yum" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - ensure_gpgcheck_local_packages
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if rpm --quiet -q yum; then

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^localpkg_gpgcheck")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^localpkg_gpgcheck\\>" "/etc/yum.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^localpkg_gpgcheck\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/yum.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/yum.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/yum.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/yum.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/yum.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure gpgcheck Enabled for All yum Package Repositories   [ref]

To ensure signature checking is not disabled for any repos, remove any lines from files in /etc/yum.repos.d of the form:
gpgcheck=0
Rationale:
Verifying the authenticity of the software prior to installation validates the integrity of the patch or upgrade received from a vendor. This ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. Self-signed certificates are disallowed by this requirement. Certificates used to verify the software must be from an approved Certificate Authority (CA)."
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 2, 3, 9, 5.10.4.1, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, 3.4.8, CCI-001749, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.312(b), 164.312(c)(1), 164.312(c)(2), 164.312(e)(2)(i), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), SA-12, SA-12(10), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, FPT_TUD_EXT.1, FPT_TUD_EXT.2, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153, R59, 6.3.3


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Grep for yum repo section names
  shell: |
    set -o pipefail
    grep -HEr '^\[.+\]' -r /etc/yum.repos.d/
  register: repo_grep_results
  failed_when: repo_grep_results.rc not in [0, 1]
  changed_when: false
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - enable_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set gpgcheck=1 for each yum repo
  ini_file:
    path: '{{ item[0] }}'
    section: '{{ item[1] }}'
    option: gpgcheck
    value: '1'
    no_extra_spaces: true
  loop: '{{ repo_grep_results.stdout |regex_findall( ''(.+\.repo):\[(.+)\]\n?'' )
    if repo_grep_results is not skipped else []}}'
  when: repo_grep_results is not skipped
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.8
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-11(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(3)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12
  - NIST-800-53-SA-12(10)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12
  - NIST-800-53-SC-12(3)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - enable_strategy
  - ensure_gpgcheck_never_disabled
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed


sed -i 's/gpgcheck\s*=.*/gpgcheck=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/*

Rule   Ensure Oracle Linux GPG Key Installed   [ref]

To ensure the system can cryptographically verify base software packages come from Oracle (and to connect to the Unbreakable Linux Network to receive them), the Oracle GPG key must properly be installed. To install the Oracle GPG key, run:
$ sudo uln_register
If the system is not connected to the Internet, then install the Oracle GPG key from trusted media such as the Oracle installation CD-ROM or DVD. Assuming the disc is mounted in /media/cdrom, use the following command as the root user to import it into the keyring:
$ sudo rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle
Alternatively, the key may be pre-loaded during the Oracle installation. In such cases, the key can be installed by running the following command:
sudo rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle
Rationale:
Changes to software components can have significant effects on the overall security of the operating system. This requirement ensures the software has not been tampered with and that it has been provided by a trusted vendor. The Oracle GPG key is necessary to cryptographically verify packages are from Oracle.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_oracle_gpgkey_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 2, 3, 9, APO01.06, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS06.02, CCI-001749, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-5(3), SI-7, SC-12, SC-12(3), CM-6(a), CM-11(a), CM-11(b), PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, Req-6.2, R59


# OL fingerprints below retrieved from: https://linux.oracle.com/security/gpg/#gpg
readonly OL_RELEASE_FINGERPRINT="3E6D826D3FBAB389C2F38E34BC4D06A08D8B756F"
readonly OL_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT="982231759C7467065D0CE9B2A7DD07088B4EFBE6"

FINGERPRINTS_REGEX="${OL_RELEASE_FINGERPRINT}"

if [[ -n "$OL_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT" ]]; then
    FINGERPRINTS_REGEX+="|${OL_AUXILIARY_FINGERPRINT}"
fi

# Location of the key we would like to import (once it's integrity verified)
readonly OL_RELEASE_KEY="/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-oracle"

RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS=$(stat -c %a "$(dirname "$OL_RELEASE_KEY")")

# Verify /etc/pki/rpm-gpg directory permissions are safe
if [ "${RPM_GPG_DIR_PERMS}" -le "755" ]
then
  # If they are safe, try to obtain fingerprints from the key file
  # (to ensure there won't be e.g. CRC error)
  
    readarray -t GPG_OUT < <(gpg --show-keys --with-fingerprint --with-colons "$OL_RELEASE_KEY" | grep -A1 "^pub" | grep "^fpr" | cut -d ":" -f 10)
  

  GPG_RESULT=$?
  # No CRC error, safe to proceed
  if [ "${GPG_RESULT}" -eq "0" ]
  then
    # Filter just hexadecimal fingerprints from gpg's output from
    # processing of a key file
    echo "${GPG_OUT[*]}" | grep -vE "$FINGERPRINTS_REGEX" || {
      # If $ OL_RELEASE_KEY file doesn't contain any keys with unknown fingerprint, import it
      rpm --import "${OL_RELEASE_KEY}"
    }
  fi
fi

Rule   Ensure Software Patches Installed   [ref]

If the system is joined to the ULN or a yum server, run the following command to install updates:
$ sudo yum update
If the system is not configured to use one of these sources, updates (in the form of RPM packages) can be manually downloaded from the ULN and installed using rpm.

NOTE: U.S. Defense systems are required to be patched within 30 days or sooner as local policy dictates.
Warning:  The OVAL feed of Oracle Linux 9 is not a XML file, which may not be understood by all scanners.
Rationale:
Installing software updates is a fundamental mitigation against the exploitation of publicly-known vulnerabilities. If the most recent security patches and updates are not installed, unauthorized users may take advantage of weaknesses in the unpatched software. The lack of prompt attention to patching could result in a system compromise.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_security_patches_up_to_date
Identifiers and References

References:  18, 20, 4, 5.10.4.1, APO12.01, APO12.02, APO12.03, APO12.04, BAI03.10, DSS05.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, CCI-001227, 4.2.3, 4.2.3.12, 4.2.3.7, 4.2.3.9, A.12.6.1, A.14.2.3, A.16.1.3, A.18.2.2, A.18.2.3, SI-2(5), SI-2(c), CM-6(a), ID.RA-1, PR.IP-12, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-6.2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, R61, 6.3.3


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch
- name: Security patches are up to date
  package:
    name: '*'
    state: latest
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.4.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-2(5)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-2(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-6.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-6.3.3
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - patch_strategy
  - reboot_required
  - security_patches_up_to_date
  - skip_ansible_lint

Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:true
Strategy:patch


yum -y update
Group   Account and Access Control   Group contains 3 groups and 3 rules
[ref]   In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Oracle Linux 9.
Group   Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   Group contains 2 groups and 2 rules
[ref]   Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.
Group   Verify Proper Storage and Existence of Password Hashes   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   By default, password hashes for local accounts are stored in the second field (colon-separated) in /etc/shadow. This file should be readable only by processes running with root credentials, preventing users from casually accessing others' password hashes and attempting to crack them. However, it remains possible to misconfigure the system and store password hashes in world-readable files such as /etc/passwd, or to even store passwords themselves in plaintext on the system. Using system-provided tools for password change/creation should allow administrators to avoid such misconfiguration.

Rule   Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password   [ref]

If an account is configured for password authentication but does not have an assigned password, it may be possible to log into the account without authentication. Remove any instances of the nullok in /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth to prevent logins with empty passwords.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. Note that this rule is not applicable for systems running within a container. Having user with empty password within a container is not considered a risk, because it should not be possible to directly login into a container anyway.
Rationale:
If an account has an empty password, anyone could log in and run commands with the privileges of that account. Accounts with empty passwords should never be used in operational environments.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_empty_passwords
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 5.5.2, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.1.1, 3.1.5, CCI-000366, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, IA-5(1)(a), IA-5(c), CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.DS-5, FIA_UAU.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 8.3.1


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Check if system relies on
    authselect
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: /usr/bin/authselect
  register: result_authselect_present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.1
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Remediate using authselect
  block:

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Check integrity of authselect
      current profile
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect check
    register: result_authselect_check_cmd
    changed_when: false
    failed_when: false

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Informative message based
      on the authselect integrity check result
    ansible.builtin.assert:
      that:
      - result_authselect_check_cmd.rc == 0
      fail_msg:
      - authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
      - This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not
        selected or the selected profile is not intact.
      - It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool
        is available.
      - In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand,
        a custom authselect profile is recommended.
      success_msg:
      - authselect integrity check passed

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Get authselect current features
    ansible.builtin.shell:
      cmd: authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }'
    register: result_authselect_features
    changed_when: false
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Ensure "without-nullok"
      feature is enabled using authselect tool
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect enable-feature without-nullok
    register: result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd
    when:
    - result_authselect_check_cmd is success
    - result_authselect_features.stdout is not search("without-nullok")

  - name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Ensure authselect changes
      are applied
    ansible.builtin.command:
      cmd: authselect apply-changes -b
    when:
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is not skipped
    - result_authselect_enable_feature_cmd is success
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.1
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Prevent Login to Accounts With Empty Password - Remediate directly editing
    PAM files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    dest: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: nullok
  loop:
  - /etc/pam.d/system-auth
  - /etc/pam.d/password-auth
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not result_authselect_present.stat.exists
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.1
  - configure_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords
  - no_reboot_needed

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature without-nullok

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/system-auth"
fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"
fi
    
if grep -qP '^\s*password\s+'"sufficient"'\s+pam_unix.so\s.*\bnullok\b' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"; then
    sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*password.*'"sufficient"'.*pam_unix.so.*)\snullok=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "/etc/pam.d/password-auth"
fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

---
apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
spec:
  config:
    ignition:
      version: 3.1.0
    storage:
      files:
      - contents:
          source: data:,%23%20Generated%20by%20authselect%20on%20Sat%20Oct%2027%2014%3A59%3A36%202018%0A%23%20Do%20not%20modify%20this%20file%20manually.%0A%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_env.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_faildelay.so%20delay%3D2000000%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_fprintd.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20try_first_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet_success%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20forward_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3C%201000%20quiet%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3Dbad%20success%3Dok%20user_unknown%3Dignore%5D%20pam_sss.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_permit.so%0A%0Apassword%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_pwquality.so%20try_first_pass%20local_users_only%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20sha512%20shadow%20try_first_pass%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_keyinit.so%20revoke%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_limits.so%0A-session%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_systemd.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20%5Bsuccess%3D1%20default%3Dignore%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20service%20in%20crond%20quiet%20use_uid%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%0A
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/pam.d/password-auth
        overwrite: true
      - contents:
          source: data:,%23%20Generated%20by%20authselect%20on%20Sat%20Oct%2027%2014%3A59%3A36%202018%0A%23%20Do%20not%20modify%20this%20file%20manually.%0A%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_env.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_faildelay.so%20delay%3D2000000%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_fprintd.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3D1%20ignore%3Dignore%20success%3Dok%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20try_first_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3E%3D%201000%20quiet_success%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20forward_pass%0Aauth%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_localuser.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20uid%20%3C%201000%20quiet%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20%5Bdefault%3Dbad%20success%3Dok%20user_unknown%3Dignore%5D%20pam_sss.so%0Aaccount%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_permit.so%0A%0Apassword%20%20%20%20requisite%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_pwquality.so%20try_first_pass%20local_users_only%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%20sha512%20shadow%20try_first_pass%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20sufficient%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%20use_authtok%0Apassword%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_deny.so%0A%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_keyinit.so%20revoke%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_limits.so%0A-session%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_systemd.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20%5Bsuccess%3D1%20default%3Dignore%5D%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_succeed_if.so%20service%20in%20crond%20quiet%20use_uid%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20required%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_unix.so%0Asession%20%20%20%20%20optional%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20pam_sss.so%0A
        mode: 0644
        path: /etc/pam.d/system-auth
        overwrite: true
Group   Restrict Root Logins   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

Rule   Verify Only Root Has UID 0   [ref]

If any account other than root has a UID of 0, this misconfiguration should be investigated and the accounts other than root should be removed or have their UID changed.
If the account is associated with system commands or applications the UID should be changed to one greater than "0" but less than "1000." Otherwise assign a UID greater than "1000" that has not already been assigned.
Rationale:
An account has root authority if it has a UID of 0. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account. Proper configuration of sudo is recommended to afford multiple system administrators access to root privileges in an accountable manner.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_no_uid_except_zero
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.1.1, 3.1.5, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, IA-2, AC-6(5), IA-4(b), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.DS-5, Req-8.5, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 8.2.1


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get all /etc/passwd file entries
  getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(5)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - NIST-800-53-IA-4(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.1
  - accounts_no_uid_except_zero
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock the password of the user accounts other than root with uid 0
  command: passwd -l {{ item.key }}
  loop: '{{ getent_passwd | dict2items | rejectattr(''key'', ''search'', ''root'')
    | list }}'
  when: item.value.1  == '0'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(5)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - NIST-800-53-IA-4(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.1
  - accounts_no_uid_except_zero
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

awk -F: '$3 == 0 && $1 != "root" { print $1 }' /etc/passwd | xargs --no-run-if-empty --max-lines=1 passwd -l

Rule   Enable authselect   [ref]

Configure user authentication setup to use the authselect tool. If authselect profile is selected, the rule will enable the sssd profile.
Warning:  If the sudo authselect select command returns an error informing that the chosen profile cannot be selected, it is probably because PAM files have already been modified by the administrator. If this is the case, in order to not overwrite the desired changes made by the administrator, the current PAM settings should be investigated before forcing the selection of the chosen authselect profile.
Rationale:
Authselect is a successor to authconfig. It is a tool to select system authentication and identity sources from a list of supported profiles instead of letting the administrator manually build the PAM stack. That way, it avoids potential breakage of configuration, as it ships several tested profiles that are well tested and supported to solve different use-cases.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_enable_authselect
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000213, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(B), 164.308(a)(7)(i), 164.308(a)(7)(ii)(A), 164.310(a)(1), 164.310(a)(2)(i), 164.310(a)(2)(ii), 164.310(a)(2)(iii), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.310(d)(1), 164.310(d)(2)(iii), AC-3, FIA_UAU.1, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, R31, 8.3.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: XCCDF Value var_authselect_profile # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_authselect_profile: !!str sssd
  tags:
    - always

- name: Enable authselect - Select authselect profile
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect select "{{ var_authselect_profile }}"
  register: result_authselect_select
  failed_when: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Enable authselect - Verify if PAM has been altered
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: rpm -qV pam
  register: result_altered_authselect
  failed_when: false
  when: result_authselect_select.rc != 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Enable authselect - Informative message based on the authselect integrity
    check
  ansible.builtin.assert:
    that:
    - result_altered_authselect is skipped or result_altered_authselect.rc == 0
    fail_msg:
    - Files in the 'pam' package have been altered, so the authselect configuration
      won't be forced.
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Enable authselect - Force authselect profile select
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: authselect select --force "{{ var_authselect_profile }}"
  when:
  - result_authselect_select.rc != 0
  - result_altered_authselect is skipped or result_altered_authselect.rc == 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.4
  - configure_strategy
  - enable_authselect
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed


var_authselect_profile='sssd'


authselect select "$var_authselect_profile"

if test "$?" -ne 0; then
    if rpm --quiet --verify pam; then
        authselect select --force "$var_authselect_profile"
    else
	echo "Files in the 'pam' package have been altered, so the authselect configuration won't be forced" >&2
    fi
fi
Group   Configure Syslog   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The syslog service has been the default Unix logging mechanism for many years. It has a number of downsides, including inconsistent log format, lack of authentication for received messages, and lack of authentication, encryption, or reliable transport for messages sent over a network. However, due to its long history, syslog is a de facto standard which is supported by almost all Unix applications.

In Oracle Linux 9, rsyslog has replaced ksyslogd as the syslog daemon of choice, and it includes some additional security features such as reliable, connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) transmission of logs, the option to log to database formats, and the encryption of log data en route to a central logging server. This section discusses how to configure rsyslog for best effect, and how to use tools provided with the system to maintain and monitor logs.

Rule   Ensure rsyslog is Installed   [ref]

Rsyslog is installed by default. The rsyslog package can be installed with the following command:
 $ sudo yum install rsyslog
Rationale:
The rsyslog package provides the rsyslog daemon, which provides system logging services.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_rsyslog_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, APO11.04, BAI03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-001311, CCI-001312, CCI-000366, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, CM-6(a), PR.PT-1, FTP_ITC_EXT.1.1, SRG-OS-000479-GPOS-00224, SRG-OS-000051-GPOS-00024, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227



[[packages]]
name = "rsyslog"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure rsyslog is installed
  package:
    name: rsyslog
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_rsyslog_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_rsyslog

class install_rsyslog {
  package { 'rsyslog':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

package --add=rsyslog

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "rsyslog" ; then
    yum install -y "rsyslog"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Enable rsyslog Service   [ref]

The rsyslog service provides syslog-style logging by default on Oracle Linux 9. The rsyslog service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable rsyslog.service
Rationale:
The rsyslog service must be running in order to provide logging services, which are essential to system administration.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_rsyslog_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, CCI-001311, CCI-001312, CCI-001557, CCI-001851, CCI-000366, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.17.2.1, CM-6(a), AU-4(1), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227



[customizations.services]
enabled = ["rsyslog"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service rsyslog
  block:

  - name: Gather the package facts
    package_facts:
      manager: auto

  - name: Enable service rsyslog
    systemd:
      name: rsyslog
      enabled: 'yes'
      state: started
      masked: 'no'
    when:
    - '"rsyslog" in ansible_facts.packages'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AU-4(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_rsyslog_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include enable_rsyslog

class enable_rsyslog {
  service {'rsyslog':
    enable => true,
    ensure => 'running',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" unmask 'rsyslog.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'rsyslog.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'rsyslog.service'

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Network Configuration and Firewalls   Group contains 2 groups and 3 rules
[ref]   Most systems must be connected to a network of some sort, and this brings with it the substantial risk of network attack. This section discusses the security impact of decisions about networking which must be made when configuring a system.

This section also discusses firewalls, network access controls, and other network security frameworks, which allow system-level rules to be written that can limit an attackers' ability to connect to your system. These rules can specify that network traffic should be allowed or denied from certain IP addresses, hosts, and networks. The rules can also specify which of the system's network services are available to particular hosts or networks.
Group   firewalld   Group contains 1 group and 2 rules
[ref]   The dynamic firewall daemon firewalld provides a dynamically managed firewall with support for network “zones” to assign a level of trust to a network and its associated connections and interfaces. It has support for IPv4 and IPv6 firewall settings. It supports Ethernet bridges and has a separation of runtime and permanent configuration options. It also has an interface for services or applications to add firewall rules directly.
A graphical configuration tool, firewall-config, is used to configure firewalld, which in turn uses iptables tool to communicate with Netfilter in the kernel which implements packet filtering.
The firewall service provided by firewalld is dynamic rather than static because changes to the configuration can be made at anytime and are immediately implemented. There is no need to save or apply the changes. No unintended disruption of existing network connections occurs as no part of the firewall has to be reloaded.
Group   Inspect and Activate Default firewalld Rules   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   Firewalls can be used to separate networks into different zones based on the level of trust the user has decided to place on the devices and traffic within that network. NetworkManager informs firewalld to which zone an interface belongs. An interface's assigned zone can be changed by NetworkManager or via the firewall-config tool.
The zone settings in /etc/firewalld/ are a range of preset settings which can be quickly applied to a network interface. These are the zones provided by firewalld sorted according to the default trust level of the zones from untrusted to trusted:
  • drop

    Any incoming network packets are dropped, there is no reply. Only outgoing network connections are possible.

  • block

    Any incoming network connections are rejected with an icmp-host-prohibited message for IPv4 and icmp6-adm-prohibited for IPv6. Only network connections initiated from within the system are possible.

  • public

    For use in public areas. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • external

    For use on external networks with masquerading enabled especially for routers. You do not trust the other computers on the network to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • dmz

    For computers in your demilitarized zone that are publicly-accessible with limited access to your internal network. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • work

    For use in work areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • home

    For use in home areas. You mostly trust the other computers on networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • internal

    For use on internal networks. You mostly trust the other computers on the networks to not harm your computer. Only selected incoming connections are accepted.

  • trusted

    All network connections are accepted.


It is possible to designate one of these zones to be the default zone. When interface connections are added to NetworkManager, they are assigned to the default zone. On installation, the default zone in firewalld is set to be the public zone.
To find out all the settings of a zone, for example the public zone, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
Example output of this command might look like the following:
# firewall-cmd --zone=public --list-all
public
  interfaces:
  services: mdns dhcpv6-client ssh
  ports:
  forward-ports:
  icmp-blocks: source-quench
To view the network zones currently active, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
The following listing displays the result of this command on common Oracle Linux 9 system:
# firewall-cmd --get-service
amanda-client bacula bacula-client dhcp dhcpv6 dhcpv6-client dns ftp
high-availability http https imaps ipp ipp-client ipsec kerberos kpasswd
ldap ldaps libvirt libvirt-tls mdns mountd ms-wbt mysql nfs ntp openvpn
pmcd pmproxy pmwebapi pmwebapis pop3s postgresql proxy-dhcp radius rpc-bind
samba samba-client smtp ssh telnet tftp tftp-client transmission-client
vnc-server wbem-https
Finally to view the network zones that will be active after the next firewalld service reload, enter the following command as root:
# firewall-cmd --get-service --permanent

Rule   Install firewalld Package   [ref]

The firewalld package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install firewalld
Rationale:
"Firewalld" provides an easy and effective way to block/limit remote access to the system via ports, services, and protocols. Remote access services, such as those providing remote access to network devices and information systems, which lack automated control capabilities, increase risk and make remote user access management difficult at best. Remote access is access to DoD nonpublic information systems by an authorized user (or an information system) communicating through an external, non-organization-controlled network. Remote access methods include, for example, dial-up, broadband, and wireless. Oracle Linux 9 functionality (e.g., SSH) must be capable of taking enforcement action if the audit reveals unauthorized activity. Automated control of remote access sessions allows organizations to ensure ongoing compliance with remote access policies by enforcing connection rules of remote access applications on a variety of information system components (e.g., servers, workstations, notebook computers, smartphones, and tablets)."
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_firewalld_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-002314, CM-6(a), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000096-GPOS-00050, SRG-OS-000297-GPOS-00115, SRG-OS-000298-GPOS-00116, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00232, 1.2.1



[[packages]]
name = "firewalld"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure firewalld is installed
  package:
    name: firewalld
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_firewalld_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_firewalld

class install_firewalld {
  package { 'firewalld':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

package --add=firewalld

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "firewalld" ; then
    yum install -y "firewalld"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Verify firewalld Enabled   [ref]

The firewalld service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable firewalld.service
Rationale:
Access control methods provide the ability to enhance system security posture by restricting services and known good IP addresses and address ranges. This prevents connections from unknown hosts and protocols.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_firewalld_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.1.3, 3.4.7, CCI-000366, CCI-000382, CCI-002314, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CIP-003-8 R4, CIP-003-8 R5, CIP-004-6 R3, AC-4, CM-7(b), CA-3(5), SC-7(21), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000096-GPOS-00050, SRG-OS-000297-GPOS-00115, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00231, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00232, 1.2.1



[customizations.services]
enabled = ["firewalld"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CA-3(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(21)
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_firewalld_enabled

- name: Enable service firewalld
  block:

  - name: Gather the package facts
    package_facts:
      manager: auto

  - name: Enable service firewalld
    systemd:
      name: firewalld
      enabled: 'yes'
      state: started
      masked: 'no'
    when:
    - '"firewalld" in ansible_facts.packages'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - '"firewalld" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.3
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-AC-4
  - NIST-800-53-CA-3(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(21)
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.1
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_firewalld_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include enable_firewalld

class enable_firewalld {
  service {'firewalld':
    enable => true,
    ensure => 'running',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && { rpm --quiet -q firewalld; }; then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" unmask 'firewalld.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'firewalld.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'firewalld.service'

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure System is Not Acting as a Network Sniffer   [ref]

The system should not be acting as a network sniffer, which can capture all traffic on the network to which it is connected. Run the following to determine if any interface is running in promiscuous mode:
$ ip link | grep PROMISC
Promiscuous mode of an interface can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo ip link set dev device_name multicast off promisc off
Rationale:
Network interfaces in promiscuous mode allow for the capture of all network traffic visible to the system. If unauthorized individuals can access these applications, it may allow them to collect information such as logon IDs, passwords, and key exchanges between systems.

If the system is being used to perform a network troubleshooting function, the use of these tools must be documented with the Information Systems Security Manager (ISSM) and restricted to only authorized personnel.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_network_sniffer_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 14, 3, 9, APO11.06, APO12.06, BAI03.10, BAI09.01, BAI09.02, BAI09.03, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.05, DSS04.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000366, 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.3.7, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.4.3.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, SR 7.8, A.11.1.2, A.11.2.4, A.11.2.5, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.16.1.6, A.8.1.1, A.8.1.2, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), CM-7(2), MA-3, DE.DP-5, ID.AM-1, PR.IP-1, PR.MA-1, PR.PT-3, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.4.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure System is Not Acting as a Network Sniffer - Gather network interfaces
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: ip -o link show
  register: network_interfaces
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(2)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-3
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.4.5
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - network_sniffer_disabled
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure System is Not Acting as a Network Sniffer - Disable promiscuous mode
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: ip link set dev {{ item.split(':')[1] }} multicast off promisc off
  loop: '{{ network_interfaces.stdout_lines }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - network_interfaces.stdout_lines is defined and "item.split(':') | length == 3"
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(2)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MA-3
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.4.5
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - network_sniffer_disabled
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

for interface in $(ip -o link show | cut -d ":" -f 2); do
    ip link set dev $interface multicast off promisc off
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   File Permissions and Masks   Group contains 5 groups and 19 rules
[ref]   Traditional Unix security relies heavily on file and directory permissions to prevent unauthorized users from reading or modifying files to which they should not have access.

Several of the commands in this section search filesystems for files or directories with certain characteristics, and are intended to be run on every local partition on a given system. When the variable PART appears in one of the commands below, it means that the command is intended to be run repeatedly, with the name of each local partition substituted for PART in turn.

The following command prints a list of all xfs partitions on the local system, which is the default filesystem for Oracle Linux 9 installations:
$ mount -t xfs | awk '{print $3}'
For any systems that use a different local filesystem type, modify this command as appropriate.
Group   Verify Permissions on Important Files and Directories   Group contains 1 group and 8 rules
[ref]   Permissions for many files on a system must be set restrictively to ensure sensitive information is properly protected. This section discusses important permission restrictions which can be verified to ensure that no harmful discrepancies have arisen.
Group   Verify File Permissions Within Some Important Directories   Group contains 4 rules
[ref]   Some directories contain files whose confidentiality or integrity is notably important and may also be susceptible to misconfiguration over time, particularly if unpackaged software is installed. As such, an argument exists to verify that files' permissions within these directories remain configured correctly and restrictively.

Rule   Verify that System Executables Have Root Ownership   [ref]

System executables are stored in the following directories by default:
/bin
/sbin
/usr/bin
/usr/libexec
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/sbin
/usr/sbin
All files in these directories should be owned by the root user. If any file FILE in these directories is found to be owned by a user other than root, correct its ownership with the following command:
$ sudo chown root FILE
         
Rationale:
System binaries are executed by privileged users as well as system services, and restrictive permissions are necessary to ensure that their execution of these programs cannot be co-opted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_ownership_binary_dirs
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001499, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, SRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100, R50


Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read list of system executables without root ownership
  command: find /bin/ /usr/bin/ /usr/local/bin/ /sbin/ /usr/sbin/ /usr/local/sbin/
    /usr/libexec \! -user root
  register: no_root_system_executables
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_ownership_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set ownership to root of system executables
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: root
  with_items: '{{ no_root_system_executables.stdout_lines }}'
  when: no_root_system_executables.stdout_lines | length > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_ownership_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

find /bin/ \
/usr/bin/ \
/usr/local/bin/ \
/sbin/ \
/usr/sbin/ \
/usr/local/sbin/ \
/usr/libexec \
\! -user root -execdir chown root {} \;

Rule   Verify that Shared Library Files Have Root Ownership   [ref]

System-wide shared library files, which are linked to executables during process load time or run time, are stored in the following directories by default:
/lib
/lib64
/usr/lib
/usr/lib64
Kernel modules, which can be added to the kernel during runtime, are also stored in /lib/modules. All files in these directories should be owned by the root user. If the directory, or any file in these directories, is found to be owned by a user other than root correct its ownership with the following command:
$ sudo chown root FILE
         
Rationale:
Files from shared library directories are loaded into the address space of processes (including privileged ones) or of the kernel itself at runtime. Proper ownership is necessary to protect the integrity of the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_ownership_library_dirs
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001499, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, SRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Find /lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /usr/lib/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$ recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner on /usr/lib64/ file(s) matching ^.*$
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    owner: '0'
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_ownership_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure

find /lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

find /lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

find /usr/lib/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

find /usr/lib64/  -type f ! -uid 0 -regex '^.*$' -exec chown 0 {} \;

Rule   Verify that System Executables Have Restrictive Permissions   [ref]

System executables are stored in the following directories by default:
/bin
/sbin
/usr/bin
/usr/libexec
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/sbin
/usr/sbin
All files in these directories should not be group-writable or world-writable. If any file FILE in these directories is found to be group-writable or world-writable, correct its permission with the following command:
$ sudo chmod go-w FILE
         
Rationale:
System binaries are executed by privileged users, as well as system services, and restrictive permissions are necessary to ensure execution of these programs cannot be co-opted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_binary_dirs
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001499, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, SRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100, R50


Complexity:medium
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Read list of world and group writable system executables
  ansible.builtin.command: find /bin /usr/bin /usr/local/bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/local/sbin
    /usr/libexec -perm /022 -type f
  register: world_writable_library_files
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_permissions_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Remove world/group writability of system executables
  ansible.builtin.file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: go-w
    state: file
  with_items: '{{ world_writable_library_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: world_writable_library_files.stdout_lines | length > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - file_permissions_binary_dirs
  - medium_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

DIRS="/bin /usr/bin /usr/local/bin /sbin /usr/sbin /usr/local/sbin /usr/libexec"
for dirPath in $DIRS; do
	find "$dirPath" -perm /022 -exec chmod go-w '{}' \;
done

Rule   Verify that Shared Library Files Have Restrictive Permissions   [ref]

System-wide shared library files, which are linked to executables during process load time or run time, are stored in the following directories by default:
/lib
/lib64
/usr/lib
/usr/lib64
Kernel modules, which can be added to the kernel during runtime, are stored in /lib/modules. All files in these directories should not be group-writable or world-writable. If any file in these directories is found to be group-writable or world-writable, correct its permission with the following command:
$ sudo chmod go-w FILE
         
Rationale:
Files from shared library directories are loaded into the address space of processes (including privileged ones) or of the kernel itself at runtime. Restrictive permissions are necessary to protect the integrity of the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_library_dirs
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001499, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-6(a), CM-5(6), CM-5(6).1, AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, SRG-OS-000259-GPOS-00100


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Find /lib/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /lib/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /lib64/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /lib64/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /usr/lib/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Find /usr/lib64/ file(s) recursively
  command: find -H /usr/lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex "^.*$"
  register: files_found
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: false
  check_mode: false
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Set permissions for /usr/lib64/ file(s)
  file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: g-w,o-w
    state: file
  with_items:
  - '{{ files_found.stdout_lines }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-5(6).1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_library_dirs
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure





find -H /lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;

find -H /lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;

find -H /usr/lib/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;

find -H /usr/lib64/  -perm /g+w,o+w  -type f -regex '^.*$' -exec chmod g-w,o-w {} \;

Rule   Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set   [ref]

When the so-called 'sticky bit' is set on a directory, only the owner of a given file may remove that file from the directory. Without the sticky bit, any user with write access to a directory may remove any file in the directory. Setting the sticky bit prevents users from removing each other's files. In cases where there is no reason for a directory to be world-writable, a better solution is to remove that permission rather than to set the sticky bit. However, if a directory is used by a particular application, consult that application's documentation instead of blindly changing modes.
To set the sticky bit on a world-writable directory DIR, run the following command:
$ sudo chmod +t DIR
        
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of directories present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of directories can be affected. See https://access.redhat.com/articles/6999111.
Rationale:
Failing to set the sticky bit on public directories allows unauthorized users to delete files in the directory structure.

The only authorized public directories are those temporary directories supplied with the system, or those designed to be temporary file repositories. The setting is normally reserved for directories used by the system, by users for temporary file storage (such as /tmp), and for directories requiring global read/write access.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, CCI-001090, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, SRG-OS-000138-GPOS-00069, R54, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Define Excluded
    (Non-Local) File Systems and Paths
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    excluded_fstypes:
    - afs
    - ceph
    - cifs
    - smb3
    - smbfs
    - sshfs
    - ncpfs
    - ncp
    - nfs
    - nfs4
    - gfs
    - gfs2
    - glusterfs
    - gpfs
    - pvfs2
    - ocfs2
    - lustre
    - davfs
    - fuse.sshfs
    excluded_paths:
    - dev
    - proc
    - run
    - sys
    search_paths: []
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Find Relevant
    Root Directories Ignoring Pre-Defined Excluded Paths
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths: /
    file_type: directory
    excludes: '{{ excluded_paths }}'
    hidden: true
    recurse: false
  register: result_relevant_root_dirs
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Include
    Relevant Root Directories in a List of Paths to be Searched
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    search_paths: '{{ search_paths | union([item.path]) }}'
  loop: '{{ result_relevant_root_dirs.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Increment
    Search Paths List with Local Partitions Mount Points
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    search_paths: '{{ search_paths | union([item.mount]) }}'
  loop: '{{ ansible_mounts }}'
  when:
  - item.fstype not in excluded_fstypes
  - item.mount != '/'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Increment
    Search Paths List with Local NFS File System Targets
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    search_paths: '{{ search_paths | union([item.device.split('':'')[1]]) }}'
  loop: '{{ ansible_mounts }}'
  when: item.device is search("localhost:")
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Define Rule
    Specific Facts
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    world_writable_dirs: []
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Find All
    Uncompliant Directories in Local File Systems
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: find {{ item }} -xdev -type d ( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 )
  loop: '{{ search_paths }}'
  changed_when: false
  register: result_found_dirs
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Create List
    of World Writable Directories Without Sticky Bit
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    world_writable_dirs: '{{ world_writable_dirs | union(item.stdout_lines) | list
      }}'
  loop: '{{ result_found_dirs.results }}'
  when: result_found_dirs is not skipped and item is not skipped
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Verify that All World-Writable Directories Have Sticky Bits Set - Ensure Sticky
    Bit is Set on Local World Writable Directories
  ansible.builtin.file:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    mode: a+t
  loop: '{{ world_writable_dirs }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - dir_perms_world_writable_sticky_bits
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

df --local -P | awk '{if (NR!=1) print $6}' \
| xargs -I '$6' find '$6' -xdev -type d \
\( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 \) 2>/dev/null \
-exec chmod a+t {} +

Rule   Ensure All SGID Executables Are Authorized   [ref]

The SGID (set group id) bit should be set only on files that were installed via authorized means. A straightforward means of identifying unauthorized SGID files is determine if any were not installed as part of an RPM package, which is cryptographically verified. Investigate the origin of any unpackaged SGID files. This configuration check considers authorized SGID files those which were installed via RPM. It is assumed that when an individual has sudo access to install an RPM and all packages are signed with an organizationally-recognized GPG key, the software should be considered an approved package on the system. Any SGID file not deployed through an RPM will be flagged for further review.
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of files present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of files can be affected. See https://access.redhat.com/articles/6999111.
Rationale:
Executable files with the SGID permission run with the privileges of the owner of the file. SGID files of uncertain provenance could allow for unprivileged users to elevate privileges. The presence of these files should be strictly controlled on the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_unauthorized_sgid
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, R56

Rule   Ensure All SUID Executables Are Authorized   [ref]

The SUID (set user id) bit should be set only on files that were installed via authorized means. A straightforward means of identifying unauthorized SUID files is determine if any were not installed as part of an RPM package, which is cryptographically verified. Investigate the origin of any unpackaged SUID files. This configuration check considers authorized SUID files those which were installed via RPM. It is assumed that when an individual has sudo access to install an RPM and all packages are signed with an organizationally-recognized GPG key, the software should be considered an approved package on the system. Any SUID file not deployed through an RPM will be flagged for further review.
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of files present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of files can be affected. See https://access.redhat.com/articles/6999111.
Rationale:
Executable files with the SUID permission run with the privileges of the owner of the file. SUID files of uncertain provenance could allow for unprivileged users to elevate privileges. The presence of these files should be strictly controlled on the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_unauthorized_suid
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, R56

Rule   Ensure No World-Writable Files Exist   [ref]

It is generally a good idea to remove global (other) write access to a file when it is discovered. However, check with documentation for specific applications before making changes. Also, monitor for recurring world-writable files, as these may be symptoms of a misconfigured application or user account. Finally, this applies to real files and not virtual files that are a part of pseudo file systems such as sysfs or procfs.
Warning:  This rule can take a long time to perform the check and might consume a considerable amount of resources depending on the number of files present on the system. It is not a problem in most cases, but especially systems with a large number of files can be affected. See https://access.redhat.com/articles/6999111.
Rationale:
Data in world-writable files can be modified by any user on the system. In almost all circumstances, files can be configured using a combination of user and group permissions to support whatever legitimate access is needed without the risk caused by world-writable files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_unauthorized_world_writable
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-6(a), AC-6(1), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, R54, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure

FILTER_NODEV=$(awk '/nodev/ { print $2 }' /proc/filesystems | paste -sd,)
PARTITIONS=$(findmnt -n -l -k -it $FILTER_NODEV | awk '{ print $1 }')
for PARTITION in $PARTITIONS; do
  find "${PARTITION}" -xdev -type f -perm -002 -exec chmod o-w {} \; 2>/dev/null
done

# Ensure /tmp is also fixed whem tmpfs is used.
if grep "^tmpfs /tmp" /proc/mounts; then
  find /tmp -xdev -type f -perm -002 -exec chmod o-w {} \; 2>/dev/null
fi
Group   Restrict Partition Mount Options   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   System partitions can be mounted with certain options that limit what files on those partitions can do. These options are set in the /etc/fstab configuration file, and can be used to make certain types of malicious behavior more difficult.

Rule   Add nodev Option to /dev/shm   [ref]

The nodev mount option can be used to prevent creation of device files in /dev/shm. Legitimate character and block devices should not exist within temporary directories like /dev/shm. Add the nodev option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /dev/shm.
Rationale:
The only legitimate location for device files is the /dev directory located on the root partition. The only exception to this is chroot jails.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_mount_option_dev_shm_nodev
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 13, 14, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.06, DSS06.06, CCI-001764, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.11.2.9, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.8.2.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.8.3.1, A.8.3.3, A.9.1.2, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), AC-6, AC-6(1), MP-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-2, PR.PT-3, SRG-OS-000368-GPOS-00154


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: 'Add nodev Option to /dev/shm: Check information associated to mountpoint'
  command: findmnt  '/dev/shm'
  register: device_name
  failed_when: device_name.rc > 1
  changed_when: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nodev
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nodev Option to /dev/shm: Create mount_info dictionary variable'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info|default({})|combine({item.0: item.1}) }}'
  with_together:
  - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[0].split() | list | lower }}'
  - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[1].split() | list }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - device_name.stdout is defined and device_name.stdout_lines is defined
  - (device_name.stdout | length > 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nodev
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nodev Option to /dev/shm: If /dev/shm not mounted, craft mount_info manually'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info|default({})|combine({item.0: item.1}) }}'
  with_together:
  - - target
    - source
    - fstype
    - options
  - - /dev/shm
    - tmpfs
    - tmpfs
    - defaults
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ("" | length == 0)
  - device_name.stdout is defined and device_name.stdout_lines is defined
  - (device_name.stdout | length == 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nodev
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nodev Option to /dev/shm: Make sure nodev option is part of the to /dev/shm
    options'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info | combine( {''options'':''''~mount_info.options~'',nodev''
      }) }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - mount_info is defined and "nodev" not in mount_info.options
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nodev
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nodev Option to /dev/shm: Ensure /dev/shm is mounted with nodev option'
  mount:
    path: /dev/shm
    src: '{{ mount_info.source }}'
    opts: '{{ mount_info.options }}'
    state: mounted
    fstype: '{{ mount_info.fstype }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - mount_info is defined
  - (device_name.stdout is defined and (device_name.stdout | length > 0)) or ("" |
    length == 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nodev
  - no_reboot_needed

Reboot:false
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

function perform_remediation {
    


    mount_point_match_regexp="$(printf "^[[:space:]]*[^#].*[[:space:]]%s[[:space:]]" /dev/shm)"

    # If the mount point is not in /etc/fstab, get previous mount options from /etc/mtab
    if ! grep -q "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab; then
        # runtime opts without some automatic kernel/userspace-added defaults
        previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/mtab | head -1 |  awk '{print $4}' \
                    | sed -E "s/(rw|defaults|seclabel|nodev)(,|$)//g;s/,$//")
        [ "$previous_mount_opts" ] && previous_mount_opts+=","
        # In iso9660 filesystems mtab could describe a "blocksize" value, this should be reflected in
        # fstab as "block".  The next variable is to satisfy shellcheck SC2050.
        fs_type="tmpfs"
        if [  "$fs_type" == "iso9660" ] ; then
            previous_mount_opts=$(sed 's/blocksize=/block=/' <<< "$previous_mount_opts")
        fi
        echo "tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults,${previous_mount_opts}nodev 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
    # If the mount_opt option is not already in the mount point's /etc/fstab entry, add it
    elif ! grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | grep -q "nodev"; then
        previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
        sed -i "s|\(${mount_point_match_regexp}.*${previous_mount_opts}\)|\1,nodev|" /etc/fstab
    fi


    if mkdir -p "/dev/shm"; then
        if mountpoint -q "/dev/shm"; then
            mount -o remount --target "/dev/shm"
        fi
    fi
}

perform_remediation

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Add noexec Option to /dev/shm   [ref]

The noexec mount option can be used to prevent binaries from being executed out of /dev/shm. It can be dangerous to allow the execution of binaries from world-writable temporary storage directories such as /dev/shm. Add the noexec option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /dev/shm.
Rationale:
Allowing users to execute binaries from world-writable directories such as /dev/shm can expose the system to potential compromise.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_mount_option_dev_shm_noexec
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 13, 14, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.06, DSS06.06, CCI-001764, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.11.2.9, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.8.2.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.8.3.1, A.8.3.3, A.9.1.2, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), AC-6, AC-6(1), MP-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-2, PR.PT-3, SRG-OS-000368-GPOS-00154


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: 'Add noexec Option to /dev/shm: Check information associated to mountpoint'
  command: findmnt  '/dev/shm'
  register: device_name
  failed_when: device_name.rc > 1
  changed_when: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_noexec
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add noexec Option to /dev/shm: Create mount_info dictionary variable'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info|default({})|combine({item.0: item.1}) }}'
  with_together:
  - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[0].split() | list | lower }}'
  - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[1].split() | list }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - device_name.stdout is defined and device_name.stdout_lines is defined
  - (device_name.stdout | length > 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_noexec
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add noexec Option to /dev/shm: If /dev/shm not mounted, craft mount_info
    manually'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info|default({})|combine({item.0: item.1}) }}'
  with_together:
  - - target
    - source
    - fstype
    - options
  - - /dev/shm
    - tmpfs
    - tmpfs
    - defaults
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ("" | length == 0)
  - device_name.stdout is defined and device_name.stdout_lines is defined
  - (device_name.stdout | length == 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_noexec
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add noexec Option to /dev/shm: Make sure noexec option is part of the to
    /dev/shm options'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info | combine( {''options'':''''~mount_info.options~'',noexec''
      }) }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - mount_info is defined and "noexec" not in mount_info.options
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_noexec
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add noexec Option to /dev/shm: Ensure /dev/shm is mounted with noexec option'
  mount:
    path: /dev/shm
    src: '{{ mount_info.source }}'
    opts: '{{ mount_info.options }}'
    state: mounted
    fstype: '{{ mount_info.fstype }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - mount_info is defined
  - (device_name.stdout is defined and (device_name.stdout | length > 0)) or ("" |
    length == 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_noexec
  - no_reboot_needed

Reboot:false
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

function perform_remediation {
    


    mount_point_match_regexp="$(printf "^[[:space:]]*[^#].*[[:space:]]%s[[:space:]]" /dev/shm)"

    # If the mount point is not in /etc/fstab, get previous mount options from /etc/mtab
    if ! grep -q "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab; then
        # runtime opts without some automatic kernel/userspace-added defaults
        previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/mtab | head -1 |  awk '{print $4}' \
                    | sed -E "s/(rw|defaults|seclabel|noexec)(,|$)//g;s/,$//")
        [ "$previous_mount_opts" ] && previous_mount_opts+=","
        # In iso9660 filesystems mtab could describe a "blocksize" value, this should be reflected in
        # fstab as "block".  The next variable is to satisfy shellcheck SC2050.
        fs_type="tmpfs"
        if [  "$fs_type" == "iso9660" ] ; then
            previous_mount_opts=$(sed 's/blocksize=/block=/' <<< "$previous_mount_opts")
        fi
        echo "tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults,${previous_mount_opts}noexec 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
    # If the mount_opt option is not already in the mount point's /etc/fstab entry, add it
    elif ! grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | grep -q "noexec"; then
        previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
        sed -i "s|\(${mount_point_match_regexp}.*${previous_mount_opts}\)|\1,noexec|" /etc/fstab
    fi


    if mkdir -p "/dev/shm"; then
        if mountpoint -q "/dev/shm"; then
            mount -o remount --target "/dev/shm"
        fi
    fi
}

perform_remediation

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Add nosuid Option to /dev/shm   [ref]

The nosuid mount option can be used to prevent execution of setuid programs in /dev/shm. The SUID and SGID permissions should not be required in these world-writable directories. Add the nosuid option to the fourth column of /etc/fstab for the line which controls mounting of /dev/shm.
Rationale:
The presence of SUID and SGID executables should be tightly controlled. Users should not be able to execute SUID or SGID binaries from temporary storage partitions.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_mount_option_dev_shm_nosuid
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 13, 14, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS05.06, DSS06.06, CCI-001764, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.11.2.9, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.8.2.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.8.3.1, A.8.3.3, A.9.1.2, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), AC-6, AC-6(1), MP-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-2, PR.PT-3, SRG-OS-000368-GPOS-00154


Complexity:low
Disruption:high
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: 'Add nosuid Option to /dev/shm: Check information associated to mountpoint'
  command: findmnt  '/dev/shm'
  register: device_name
  failed_when: device_name.rc > 1
  changed_when: false
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nosuid
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nosuid Option to /dev/shm: Create mount_info dictionary variable'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info|default({})|combine({item.0: item.1}) }}'
  with_together:
  - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[0].split() | list | lower }}'
  - '{{ device_name.stdout_lines[1].split() | list }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - device_name.stdout is defined and device_name.stdout_lines is defined
  - (device_name.stdout | length > 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nosuid
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nosuid Option to /dev/shm: If /dev/shm not mounted, craft mount_info
    manually'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info|default({})|combine({item.0: item.1}) }}'
  with_together:
  - - target
    - source
    - fstype
    - options
  - - /dev/shm
    - tmpfs
    - tmpfs
    - defaults
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ("" | length == 0)
  - device_name.stdout is defined and device_name.stdout_lines is defined
  - (device_name.stdout | length == 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nosuid
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nosuid Option to /dev/shm: Make sure nosuid option is part of the to
    /dev/shm options'
  set_fact:
    mount_info: '{{ mount_info | combine( {''options'':''''~mount_info.options~'',nosuid''
      }) }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - mount_info is defined and "nosuid" not in mount_info.options
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nosuid
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: 'Add nosuid Option to /dev/shm: Ensure /dev/shm is mounted with nosuid option'
  mount:
    path: /dev/shm
    src: '{{ mount_info.source }}'
    opts: '{{ mount_info.options }}'
    state: mounted
    fstype: '{{ mount_info.fstype }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - mount_info is defined
  - (device_name.stdout is defined and (device_name.stdout | length > 0)) or ("" |
    length == 0)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-MP-7
  - configure_strategy
  - high_disruption
  - low_complexity
  - medium_severity
  - mount_option_dev_shm_nosuid
  - no_reboot_needed

Reboot:false
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

function perform_remediation {
    


    mount_point_match_regexp="$(printf "^[[:space:]]*[^#].*[[:space:]]%s[[:space:]]" /dev/shm)"

    # If the mount point is not in /etc/fstab, get previous mount options from /etc/mtab
    if ! grep -q "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab; then
        # runtime opts without some automatic kernel/userspace-added defaults
        previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/mtab | head -1 |  awk '{print $4}' \
                    | sed -E "s/(rw|defaults|seclabel|nosuid)(,|$)//g;s/,$//")
        [ "$previous_mount_opts" ] && previous_mount_opts+=","
        # In iso9660 filesystems mtab could describe a "blocksize" value, this should be reflected in
        # fstab as "block".  The next variable is to satisfy shellcheck SC2050.
        fs_type="tmpfs"
        if [  "$fs_type" == "iso9660" ] ; then
            previous_mount_opts=$(sed 's/blocksize=/block=/' <<< "$previous_mount_opts")
        fi
        echo "tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults,${previous_mount_opts}nosuid 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
    # If the mount_opt option is not already in the mount point's /etc/fstab entry, add it
    elif ! grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | grep -q "nosuid"; then
        previous_mount_opts=$(grep "$mount_point_match_regexp" /etc/fstab | awk '{print $4}')
        sed -i "s|\(${mount_point_match_regexp}.*${previous_mount_opts}\)|\1,nosuid|" /etc/fstab
    fi


    if mkdir -p "/dev/shm"; then
        if mountpoint -q "/dev/shm"; then
            mount -o remount --target "/dev/shm"
        fi
    fi
}

perform_remediation

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Restrict Programs from Dangerous Execution Patterns   Group contains 1 group and 8 rules
[ref]   The recommendations in this section are designed to ensure that the system's features to protect against potentially dangerous program execution are activated. These protections are applied at the system initialization or kernel level, and defend against certain types of badly-configured or compromised programs.
Group   Enable ExecShield   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   ExecShield describes kernel features that provide protection against exploitation of memory corruption errors such as buffer overflows. These features include random placement of the stack and other memory regions, prevention of execution in memory that should only hold data, and special handling of text buffers. These protections are enabled by default on 32-bit systems and controlled through sysctl variables kernel.exec-shield and kernel.randomize_va_space. On the latest 64-bit systems, kernel.exec-shield cannot be enabled or disabled with sysctl.

Rule   Enable ExecShield via sysctl   [ref]

By default on Oracle Linux 9 64-bit systems, ExecShield is enabled and can only be disabled if the hardware does not support ExecShield or is disabled in /etc/default/grub. For Oracle Linux 9 32-bit systems, sysctl can be used to enable ExecShield.
Rationale:
ExecShield uses the segmentation feature on all x86 systems to prevent execution in memory higher than a certain address. It writes an address as a limit in the code segment descriptor, to control where code can be executed, on a per-process basis. When the kernel places a process's memory regions such as the stack and heap higher than this address, the hardware prevents execution in that address range. This is enabled by default on the latest Red Hat and Fedora systems if supported by the hardware.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_kernel_exec_shield
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, 3.1.7, CCI-002530, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, SC-39, CM-6(a), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000433-GPOS-00192


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Set 32bit architecture for kernel exec-shield tasks
  set_fact:
    kexec_arch: b32
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-39
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy
  - sysctl_kernel_exec_shield

- name: Set 64bit architecture for kernel exec-shield tasks
  set_fact:
    kexec_arch: b64
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-39
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy
  - sysctl_kernel_exec_shield

- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.exec-shield is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.exec-shield
    value: '1'
    state: present
    reload: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - kexec_arch == "b32"
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-39
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy
  - sysctl_kernel_exec_shield

- name: Update grub defaults and the bootloader menu
  command: /sbin/grubby --update-kernel=ALL --remove-args="noexec"
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - kexec_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-39
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy
  - sysctl_kernel_exec_shield

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if [ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] ; then
  #
  # Set runtime for kernel.exec-shield
  #
  sysctl -q -n -w kernel.exec-shield=1

  #
  # If kernel.exec-shield present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
  #	else, add "kernel.exec-shield = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
  #
  # Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^kernel.exec-shield")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^kernel.exec-shield\\>" "/etc/sysctl.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^kernel.exec-shield\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/sysctl.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/sysctl.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/sysctl.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/sysctl.conf"
fi
fi

if [ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "64" ] ; then
    
grubby --update-kernel=ALL --remove-args=noexec

fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Restrict Exposed Kernel Pointer Addresses Access   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.kptr_restrict kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.kptr_restrict=1
         
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.kptr_restrict = 1
         
Rationale:
Exposing kernel pointers (through procfs or seq_printf()) exposes kernel writeable structures which may contain functions pointers. If a write vulnerability occurs in the kernel, allowing write access to any of this structure, the kernel can be compromised. This option disallow any program without the CAP_SYSLOG capability to get the addresses of kernel pointers by replacing them with 0.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-002824, CCI-000366, CIP-002-5 R1.1, CIP-002-5 R1.2, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 4.1, CIP-004-6 4.2, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.4, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-004-6 R4, CIP-005-6 R1, CIP-005-6 R1.1, CIP-005-6 R1.2, CIP-007-3 R3, CIP-007-3 R3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1.3, CIP-007-3 R5.2.1, CIP-007-3 R5.2.3, CIP-007-3 R8.4, CIP-009-6 R.1.1, CIP-009-6 R4, SC-30, SC-30(2), SC-30(5), CM-6(a), SRG-OS-000132-GPOS-00067, SRG-OS-000433-GPOS-00192, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, R9


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sysctl.d/
    - /run/sysctl.d/
    - /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*kernel.kptr_restrict.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(5)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict

- name: Comment out any occurrences of kernel.kptr_restrict from config files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*kernel.kptr_restrict
    replace: '#kernel.kptr_restrict'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(5)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict
- name: XCCDF Value sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict_value # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict_value: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.kptr_restrict is set
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.kptr_restrict
    value: '{{ sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict_value }}'
    sysctl_file: /etc/sysctl.conf
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(2)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(5)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of kernel.kptr_restrict from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files

for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/*.conf; do


  # skip systemd-sysctl symlink (/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf -> /etc/sysctl.conf)
  if [[ "$(readlink -f "$f")" == "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]]; then continue; fi

  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*kernel.kptr_restrict.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      escaped_entry=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$entry")
      # comment out "kernel.kptr_restrict" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^${escaped_entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done

#
# Set sysctl config file which to save the desired value
#

SYSCONFIG_FILE="/etc/sysctl.conf"

sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict_value='1'


#
# Set runtime for kernel.kptr_restrict
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.kptr_restrict="$sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict_value"

#
# If kernel.kptr_restrict present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to appropriate value
#	else, add "kernel.kptr_restrict = value" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^kernel.kptr_restrict")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$sysctl_kernel_kptr_restrict_value"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^kernel.kptr_restrict\\>" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^kernel.kptr_restrict\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
else
    if [[ -s "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Enable Randomized Layout of Virtual Address Space   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.randomize_va_space kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.randomize_va_space=2
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.randomize_va_space = 2
Rationale:
Address space layout randomization (ASLR) makes it more difficult for an attacker to predict the location of attack code they have introduced into a process's address space during an attempt at exploitation. Additionally, ASLR makes it more difficult for an attacker to know the location of existing code in order to re-purpose it using return oriented programming (ROP) techniques.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_kernel_randomize_va_space
Identifiers and References

References:  3.1.7, CCI-000366, CCI-002824, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), CIP-002-5 R1.1, CIP-002-5 R1.2, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 4.1, CIP-004-6 4.2, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.4, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-004-6 R4, CIP-005-6 R1, CIP-005-6 R1.1, CIP-005-6 R1.2, CIP-007-3 R3, CIP-007-3 R3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.1.3, CIP-007-3 R5.2.1, CIP-007-3 R5.2.3, CIP-007-3 R8.4, CIP-009-6 R.1.1, CIP-009-6 R4, SC-30, SC-30(2), CM-6(a), Req-2.2.1, SRG-OS-000433-GPOS-00193, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-APP-000450-CTR-001105, R9, 3.3.1.1


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sysctl.d/
    - /run/sysctl.d/
    - /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*kernel.randomize_va_space.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(2)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-3.3.1.1
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_randomize_va_space

- name: Comment out any occurrences of kernel.randomize_va_space from config files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*kernel.randomize_va_space
    replace: '#kernel.randomize_va_space'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(2)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-3.3.1.1
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_randomize_va_space

- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.randomize_va_space is set to 2
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.randomize_va_space
    value: '2'
    sysctl_file: /etc/sysctl.conf
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30
  - NIST-800-53-SC-30(2)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.1
  - PCI-DSSv4-3.3.1.1
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_randomize_va_space

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of kernel.randomize_va_space from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files

for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/*.conf; do


  # skip systemd-sysctl symlink (/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf -> /etc/sysctl.conf)
  if [[ "$(readlink -f "$f")" == "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]]; then continue; fi

  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*kernel.randomize_va_space.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      escaped_entry=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$entry")
      # comment out "kernel.randomize_va_space" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^${escaped_entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done

#
# Set sysctl config file which to save the desired value
#

SYSCONFIG_FILE="/etc/sysctl.conf"


#
# Set runtime for kernel.randomize_va_space
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.randomize_va_space="2"

#
# If kernel.randomize_va_space present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "2"
#	else, add "kernel.randomize_va_space = 2" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^kernel.randomize_va_space")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "2"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^kernel.randomize_va_space\\>" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^kernel.randomize_va_space\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
else
    if [[ -s "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Restrict Access to Kernel Message Buffer   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.dmesg_restrict kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.dmesg_restrict=1
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.dmesg_restrict = 1
Rationale:
Unprivileged access to the kernel syslog can expose sensitive kernel address information.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_kernel_dmesg_restrict
Identifiers and References

References:  3.1.5, CCI-001090, CCI-001314, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), SI-11(a), SI-11(b), SRG-OS-000132-GPOS-00067, SRG-OS-000138-GPOS-00069, SRG-APP-000243-CTR-000600, R9


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sysctl.d/
    - /run/sysctl.d/
    - /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*kernel.dmesg_restrict.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-SI-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-11(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_dmesg_restrict

- name: Comment out any occurrences of kernel.dmesg_restrict from config files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*kernel.dmesg_restrict
    replace: '#kernel.dmesg_restrict'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-SI-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-11(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_dmesg_restrict

- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.dmesg_restrict is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.dmesg_restrict
    value: '1'
    sysctl_file: /etc/sysctl.conf
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-SI-11(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-11(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_severity
  - medium_disruption
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_dmesg_restrict

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of kernel.dmesg_restrict from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files

for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/*.conf; do


  # skip systemd-sysctl symlink (/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf -> /etc/sysctl.conf)
  if [[ "$(readlink -f "$f")" == "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]]; then continue; fi

  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*kernel.dmesg_restrict.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      escaped_entry=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$entry")
      # comment out "kernel.dmesg_restrict" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^${escaped_entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done

#
# Set sysctl config file which to save the desired value
#

SYSCONFIG_FILE="/etc/sysctl.conf"


#
# Set runtime for kernel.dmesg_restrict
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.dmesg_restrict="1"

#
# If kernel.dmesg_restrict present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
#	else, add "kernel.dmesg_restrict = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^kernel.dmesg_restrict")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^kernel.dmesg_restrict\\>" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^kernel.dmesg_restrict\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
else
    if [[ -s "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable Kernel Image Loading   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.kexec_load_disabled kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.kexec_load_disabled=1
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.kexec_load_disabled = 1
Rationale:
Disabling kexec_load allows greater control of the kernel memory. It makes it impossible to load another kernel image after it has been disabled.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_kernel_kexec_load_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-001749, CM-6, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000366-GPOS-00153


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sysctl.d/
    - /run/sysctl.d/
    - /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*kernel.kexec_load_disabled.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_kexec_load_disabled

- name: Comment out any occurrences of kernel.kexec_load_disabled from config files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*kernel.kexec_load_disabled
    replace: '#kernel.kexec_load_disabled'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_kexec_load_disabled

- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.kexec_load_disabled is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.kexec_load_disabled
    value: '1'
    sysctl_file: /etc/sysctl.conf
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_kexec_load_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of kernel.kexec_load_disabled from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files

for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/*.conf; do


  # skip systemd-sysctl symlink (/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf -> /etc/sysctl.conf)
  if [[ "$(readlink -f "$f")" == "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]]; then continue; fi

  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*kernel.kexec_load_disabled.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      escaped_entry=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$entry")
      # comment out "kernel.kexec_load_disabled" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^${escaped_entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done

#
# Set sysctl config file which to save the desired value
#

SYSCONFIG_FILE="/etc/sysctl.conf"


#
# Set runtime for kernel.kexec_load_disabled
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.kexec_load_disabled="1"

#
# If kernel.kexec_load_disabled present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
#	else, add "kernel.kexec_load_disabled = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^kernel.kexec_load_disabled")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^kernel.kexec_load_disabled\\>" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^kernel.kexec_load_disabled\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
else
    if [[ -s "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable Access to Network bpf() Syscall From Unprivileged Processes   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled=1
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled = 1
Rationale:
Loading and accessing the packet filters programs and maps using the bpf() syscall has the potential of revealing sensitive information about the kernel state.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_kernel_unprivileged_bpf_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, AC-6, SC-7(10), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000132-GPOS-00067, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, R9


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sysctl.d/
    - /run/sysctl.d/
    - /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_unprivileged_bpf_disabled

- name: Comment out any occurrences of kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled from config
    files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled
    replace: '#kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_unprivileged_bpf_disabled

- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled
    value: '1'
    sysctl_file: /etc/sysctl.conf
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_unprivileged_bpf_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files

for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/*.conf; do


  # skip systemd-sysctl symlink (/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf -> /etc/sysctl.conf)
  if [[ "$(readlink -f "$f")" == "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]]; then continue; fi

  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      escaped_entry=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$entry")
      # comment out "kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^${escaped_entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done

#
# Set sysctl config file which to save the desired value
#

SYSCONFIG_FILE="/etc/sysctl.conf"


#
# Set runtime for kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled="1"

#
# If kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
#	else, add "kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled\\>" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
else
    if [[ -s "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Restrict usage of ptrace to descendant processes   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the kernel.yama.ptrace_scope kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w kernel.yama.ptrace_scope=1
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
kernel.yama.ptrace_scope = 1
Rationale:
Unrestricted usage of ptrace allows compromised binaries to run ptrace on another processes of the user. Like this, the attacker can steal sensitive information from the target processes (e.g. SSH sessions, web browser, ...) without any additional assistance from the user (i.e. without resorting to phishing).
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_kernel_yama_ptrace_scope
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SC-7(10), SRG-OS-000132-GPOS-00067, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, R11


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sysctl.d/
    - /run/sysctl.d/
    - /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*kernel.yama.ptrace_scope.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_yama_ptrace_scope

- name: Comment out any occurrences of kernel.yama.ptrace_scope from config files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*kernel.yama.ptrace_scope
    replace: '#kernel.yama.ptrace_scope'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_yama_ptrace_scope

- name: Ensure sysctl kernel.yama.ptrace_scope is set to 1
  sysctl:
    name: kernel.yama.ptrace_scope
    value: '1'
    sysctl_file: /etc/sysctl.conf
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_kernel_yama_ptrace_scope

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of kernel.yama.ptrace_scope from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files

for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/*.conf; do


  # skip systemd-sysctl symlink (/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf -> /etc/sysctl.conf)
  if [[ "$(readlink -f "$f")" == "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]]; then continue; fi

  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*kernel.yama.ptrace_scope.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      escaped_entry=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$entry")
      # comment out "kernel.yama.ptrace_scope" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^${escaped_entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done

#
# Set sysctl config file which to save the desired value
#

SYSCONFIG_FILE="/etc/sysctl.conf"


#
# Set runtime for kernel.yama.ptrace_scope
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w kernel.yama.ptrace_scope="1"

#
# If kernel.yama.ptrace_scope present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "1"
#	else, add "kernel.yama.ptrace_scope = 1" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^kernel.yama.ptrace_scope")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "1"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^kernel.yama.ptrace_scope\\>" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^kernel.yama.ptrace_scope\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
else
    if [[ -s "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Harden the operation of the BPF just-in-time compiler   [ref]

To set the runtime status of the net.core.bpf_jit_harden kernel parameter, run the following command:
$ sudo sysctl -w net.core.bpf_jit_harden=2
To make sure that the setting is persistent, add the following line to a file in the directory /etc/sysctl.d:
net.core.bpf_jit_harden = 2
Rationale:
When hardened, the extended Berkeley Packet Filter just-in-time compiler will randomize any kernel addresses in the BPF programs and maps, and will not expose the JIT addresses in /proc/kallsyms.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sysctl_net_core_bpf_jit_harden
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, CM-6, SC-7(10), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, R12


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
- name: List /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files
  find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sysctl.d/
    - /run/sysctl.d/
    - /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/
    contains: ^[\s]*net.core.bpf_jit_harden.*$
    patterns: '*.conf'
    file_type: any
  register: find_sysctl_d
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_net_core_bpf_jit_harden

- name: Comment out any occurrences of net.core.bpf_jit_harden from config files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*net.core.bpf_jit_harden
    replace: '#net.core.bpf_jit_harden'
  loop: '{{ find_sysctl_d.files }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_net_core_bpf_jit_harden

- name: Ensure sysctl net.core.bpf_jit_harden is set to 2
  sysctl:
    name: net.core.bpf_jit_harden
    value: '2'
    sysctl_file: /etc/sysctl.conf
    state: present
    reload: true
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(10)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - sysctl_net_core_bpf_jit_harden

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:true
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Comment out any occurrences of net.core.bpf_jit_harden from /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf files

for f in /etc/sysctl.d/*.conf /run/sysctl.d/*.conf /usr/local/lib/sysctl.d/*.conf; do


  # skip systemd-sysctl symlink (/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf -> /etc/sysctl.conf)
  if [[ "$(readlink -f "$f")" == "/etc/sysctl.conf" ]]; then continue; fi

  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]*net.core.bpf_jit_harden.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      escaped_entry=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$entry")
      # comment out "net.core.bpf_jit_harden" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^${escaped_entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"
  fi
done

#
# Set sysctl config file which to save the desired value
#

SYSCONFIG_FILE="/etc/sysctl.conf"


#
# Set runtime for net.core.bpf_jit_harden
#
/sbin/sysctl -q -n -w net.core.bpf_jit_harden="2"

#
# If net.core.bpf_jit_harden present in /etc/sysctl.conf, change value to "2"
#	else, add "net.core.bpf_jit_harden = 2" to /etc/sysctl.conf
#

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^net.core.bpf_jit_harden")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "2"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^net.core.bpf_jit_harden\\>" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^net.core.bpf_jit_harden\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
else
    if [[ -s "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "${SYSCONFIG_FILE}"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   SELinux   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   SELinux is a feature of the Linux kernel which can be used to guard against misconfigured or compromised programs. SELinux enforces the idea that programs should be limited in what files they can access and what actions they can take.

The default SELinux policy, as configured on Oracle Linux 9, has been sufficiently developed and debugged that it should be usable on almost any system with minimal configuration and a small amount of system administrator training. This policy prevents system services - including most of the common network-visible services such as mail servers, FTP servers, and DNS servers - from accessing files which those services have no valid reason to access. This action alone prevents a huge amount of possible damage from network attacks against services, from trojaned software, and so forth.

This guide recommends that SELinux be enabled using the default (targeted) policy on every Oracle Linux 9 system, unless that system has unusual requirements which make a stronger policy appropriate. For more information on SELinux, see https://docs.oracle.com/en/operating-systems/oracle-linux/selinux/.

Rule   Configure SELinux Policy   [ref]

The SELinux targeted policy is appropriate for general-purpose desktops and servers, as well as systems in many other roles. To configure the system to use this policy, add or correct the following line in /etc/selinux/config:
SELINUXTYPE=targeted
       
Other policies, such as mls, provide additional security labeling and greater confinement but are not compatible with many general-purpose use cases.
Rationale:
Setting the SELinux policy to targeted or a more specialized policy ensures the system will confine processes that are likely to be targeted for exploitation, such as network or system services.

Note: During the development or debugging of SELinux modules, it is common to temporarily place non-production systems in permissive mode. In such temporary cases, SELinux policies should be developed, and once work is completed, the system should be reconfigured to targeted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_selinux_policytype
Identifiers and References

References:  APP.4.4.A4, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, MEA02.01, 3.1.2, 3.7.2, CCI-002165, CCI-002696, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.2, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-004-6 R3.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, CIP-007-3 R6.5, AC-3, AC-3(3)(a), AU-9, SC-7(21), DE.AE-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-5, PR.AC-6, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199, SRG-APP-000233-CTR-000585, R46, R64, 1.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_selinux_policy_name # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_selinux_policy_name: !!str targeted
  tags:
    - always

- name: Configure SELinux Policy
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/selinux/config
      create: true
      regexp: ^SELINUXTYPE=
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/selinux/config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/selinux/config
      create: true
      regexp: ^SELINUXTYPE=
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/selinux/config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/selinux/config
      create: true
      regexp: ^SELINUXTYPE=
      line: SELINUXTYPE={{ var_selinux_policy_name }}
      state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.7.2
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3(3)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(21)
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy
  - selinux_policytype

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

var_selinux_policy_name='targeted'


if [ -e "/etc/selinux/config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^SELINUXTYPE=/Id" "/etc/selinux/config"
else
    touch "/etc/selinux/config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/selinux/config"

cp "/etc/selinux/config" "/etc/selinux/config.bak"
# Insert at the end of the file
printf '%s\n' "SELINUXTYPE=$var_selinux_policy_name" >> "/etc/selinux/config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/selinux/config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure SELinux State is Enforcing   [ref]

The SELinux state should be set to enforcing at system boot time. In the file /etc/selinux/config, add or correct the following line to configure the system to boot into enforcing mode:
SELINUX=enforcing
       
Rationale:
Setting the SELinux state to enforcing ensures SELinux is able to confine potentially compromised processes to the security policy, which is designed to prevent them from causing damage to the system or further elevating their privileges.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_selinux_state
Identifiers and References

References:  APP.4.4.A4, 1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, APO01.06, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, DSS01.05, DSS03.01, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, MEA02.01, 3.1.2, 3.7.2, CCI-001084, CCI-002165, CCI-002696, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3), 164.308(a)(4), 164.310(b), 164.310(c), 164.312(a), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.4, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.4, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, 4.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.2, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.2, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.2, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-004-6 R3.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, CIP-007-3 R6.5, AC-3, AC-3(3)(a), AU-9, SC-7(21), DE.AE-1, ID.AM-3, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-5, PR.AC-6, PR.DS-5, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199, SRG-OS-000134-GPOS-00068, R37, R79, 1.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_selinux_state # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_selinux_state: !!str enforcing
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure SELinux State is Enforcing
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/selinux/config
      create: true
      regexp: ^SELINUX=
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/selinux/config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/selinux/config
      create: true
      regexp: ^SELINUX=
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/selinux/config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/selinux/config
      create: true
      regexp: ^SELINUX=
      line: SELINUX={{ var_selinux_state }}
      state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.2
  - NIST-800-171-3.7.2
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3
  - NIST-800-53-AC-3(3)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9
  - NIST-800-53-SC-7(21)
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.6
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - selinux_state

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

var_selinux_state='enforcing'


if [ -e "/etc/selinux/config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^SELINUX=/Id" "/etc/selinux/config"
else
    touch "/etc/selinux/config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/selinux/config"

cp "/etc/selinux/config" "/etc/selinux/config.bak"
# Insert at the end of the file
printf '%s\n' "SELINUX=$var_selinux_state" >> "/etc/selinux/config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/selinux/config.bak"

fixfiles onboot
fixfiles -f relabel

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Services   Group contains 11 groups and 22 rules
[ref]   The best protection against vulnerable software is running less software. This section describes how to review the software which Oracle Linux 9 installs on a system and disable software which is not needed. It then enumerates the software packages installed on a default Oracle Linux 9 system and provides guidance about which ones can be safely disabled.

Oracle Linux 9 provides a convenient minimal install option that essentially installs the bare necessities for a functional system. When building Oracle Linux 9 systems, it is highly recommended to select the minimal packages and then build up the system from there.
Group   Avahi Server   Group contains 1 group and 1 rule
[ref]   The Avahi daemon implements the DNS Service Discovery and Multicast DNS protocols, which provide service and host discovery on a network. It allows a system to automatically identify resources on the network, such as printers or web servers. This capability is also known as mDNSresponder and is a major part of Zeroconf networking.
Group   Disable Avahi Server if Possible   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   Because the Avahi daemon service keeps an open network port, it is subject to network attacks. Disabling it can reduce the system's vulnerability to such attacks.

Rule   Disable Avahi Server Software   [ref]

The avahi-daemon service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now avahi-daemon.service
Rationale:
Because the Avahi daemon service keeps an open network port, it is subject to network attacks. Its functionality is convenient but is only appropriate if the local network can be trusted.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_avahi-daemon_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 14, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, 2.2.4



[customizations.services]
masked = ["avahi-daemon"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_avahi-daemon_disabled

- name: Disable Avahi Server Software - Collect systemd Services Present in the System
  ansible.builtin.command: systemctl -q list-unit-files --type service
  register: service_exists
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: service_exists.rc not in [0, 1]
  check_mode: false
  when: ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman",
    "container"] and "avahi" in ansible_facts.packages )
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_avahi-daemon_disabled

- name: Disable Avahi Server Software - Ensure "avahi-daemon.service" is Masked
  ansible.builtin.systemd:
    name: avahi-daemon.service
    state: stopped
    enabled: false
    masked: true
  when:
  - ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    and "avahi" in ansible_facts.packages )
  - service_exists.stdout_lines is search("avahi-daemon.service",multiline=True)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_avahi-daemon_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - avahi-daemon.socket
  ansible.builtin.command: systemctl -q list-unit-files avahi-daemon.socket
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: socket_file_exists.rc not in [0, 1]
  check_mode: false
  when: ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman",
    "container"] and "avahi" in ansible_facts.packages )
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_avahi-daemon_disabled

- name: Disable socket avahi-daemon
  ansible.builtin.systemd:
    name: avahi-daemon.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    and "avahi" in ansible_facts.packages )
  - socket_file_exists.stdout_lines is search("avahi-daemon.socket",multiline=True)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_avahi-daemon_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include disable_avahi-daemon

class disable_avahi-daemon {
  service {'avahi-daemon':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if ( [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q avahi ); then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" stop 'avahi-daemon.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" disable 'avahi-daemon.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" mask 'avahi-daemon.service'
# Disable socket activation if we have a unit file for it
if "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" -q list-unit-files avahi-daemon.socket; then
    "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" stop 'avahi-daemon.socket'
    "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" mask 'avahi-daemon.socket'
fi
# The service may not be running because it has been started and failed,
# so let's reset the state so OVAL checks pass.
# Service should be 'inactive', not 'failed' after reboot though.
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" reset-failed 'avahi-daemon.service' || true

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Application Whitelisting Daemon   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   Fapolicyd (File Access Policy Daemon) implements application whitelisting to decide file access rights. Applications that are known via a reputation source are allowed access while unknown applications are not. The daemon makes use of the kernel's fanotify interface to determine file access rights.

Rule   Install fapolicyd Package   [ref]

The fapolicyd package can be installed with the following command:
$ sudo yum install fapolicyd
Rationale:
fapolicyd (File Access Policy Daemon) implements application whitelisting to decide file access rights.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_fapolicyd_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-001764, CCI-001774, CM-6(a), SI-4(22), SRG-OS-000370-GPOS-00155, SRG-OS-000368-GPOS-00154, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00230



[[packages]]
name = "fapolicyd"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure fapolicyd is installed
  package:
    name: fapolicyd
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-4(22)
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_fapolicyd_installed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_fapolicyd

class install_fapolicyd {
  package { 'fapolicyd':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable

package --add=fapolicyd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if ! rpm -q --quiet "fapolicyd" ; then
    yum install -y "fapolicyd"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Enable the File Access Policy Service   [ref]

The File Access Policy service should be enabled. The fapolicyd service can be enabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl enable fapolicyd.service
Rationale:
The fapolicyd service (File Access Policy Daemon) implements application whitelisting to decide file access rights.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_fapolicyd_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-001764, CCI-001774, CM-6(a), SI-4(22), FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000370-GPOS-00155, SRG-OS-000368-GPOS-00154, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00230



[customizations.services]
enabled = ["fapolicyd"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Enable service fapolicyd
  block:

  - name: Gather the package facts
    package_facts:
      manager: auto

  - name: Enable service fapolicyd
    systemd:
      name: fapolicyd
      enabled: 'yes'
      state: started
      masked: 'no'
    when:
    - '"fapolicyd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-4(22)
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_fapolicyd_enabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include enable_fapolicyd

class enable_fapolicyd {
  service {'fapolicyd':
    enable => true,
    ensure => 'running',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" unmask 'fapolicyd.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" start 'fapolicyd.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" enable 'fapolicyd.service'

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Obsolete Services   Group contains 3 groups and 7 rules
[ref]   This section discusses a number of network-visible services which have historically caused problems for system security, and for which disabling or severely limiting the service has been the best available guidance for some time. As a result of this, many of these services are not installed as part of Oracle Linux 9 by default.

Organizations which are running these services should switch to more secure equivalents as soon as possible. If it remains absolutely necessary to run one of these services for legacy reasons, care should be taken to restrict the service as much as possible, for instance by configuring host firewall software such as iptables to restrict access to the vulnerable service to only those remote hosts which have a known need to use it.
Group   Rlogin, Rsh, and Rexec   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The Berkeley r-commands are legacy services which allow cleartext remote access and have an insecure trust model.

Rule   Uninstall rsh-server Package   [ref]

The rsh-server package can be removed with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase rsh-server
Rationale:
The rsh-server service provides unencrypted remote access service which does not provide for the confidentiality and integrity of user passwords or the remote session and has very weak authentication. If a privileged user were to login using this service, the privileged user password could be compromised. The rsh-server package provides several obsolete and insecure network services. Removing it decreases the risk of those services' accidental (or intentional) activation.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_rsh-server_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 12, 14, 15, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000381, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), IA-5(1)(c), PR.AC-3, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000095-GPOS-00049, R62, 2.2.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure rsh-server is removed
  package:
    name: rsh-server
    state: absent
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_rsh-server_removed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_rsh-server

class remove_rsh-server {
  package { 'rsh-server':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

package --remove=rsh-server

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove rsh-server
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on rsh-server. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "rsh-server" ; then

    yum remove -y "rsh-server"

fi

Rule   Uninstall rsh Package   [ref]

The rsh package contains the client commands for the rsh services
Rationale:
These legacy clients contain numerous security exposures and have been replaced with the more secure SSH package. Even if the server is removed, it is best to ensure the clients are also removed to prevent users from inadvertently attempting to use these commands and therefore exposing their credentials. Note that removing the rsh package removes the clients for rsh,rcp, and rlogin.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_rsh_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  3.1.13, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), A.8.2.3, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, R62, 2.2.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure rsh is removed
  package:
    name: rsh
    state: absent
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.13
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_rsh_removed
  - unknown_severity

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_rsh

class remove_rsh {
  package { 'rsh':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

package --remove=rsh

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove rsh
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on rsh. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "rsh" ; then

    yum remove -y "rsh"

fi
Group   Chat/Messaging Services   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The talk software makes it possible for users to send and receive messages across systems through a terminal session.

Rule   Uninstall talk-server Package   [ref]

The talk-server package can be removed with the following command:
 $ sudo yum erase talk-server
Rationale:
The talk software presents a security risk as it uses unencrypted protocols for communications. Removing the talk-server package decreases the risk of the accidental (or intentional) activation of talk services.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_talk-server_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), R62, 2.2.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure talk-server is removed
  package:
    name: talk-server
    state: absent
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_talk-server_removed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_talk-server

class remove_talk-server {
  package { 'talk-server':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

package --remove=talk-server

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove talk-server
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on talk-server. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "talk-server" ; then

    yum remove -y "talk-server"

fi

Rule   Uninstall talk Package   [ref]

The talk package contains the client program for the Internet talk protocol, which allows the user to chat with other users on different systems. Talk is a communication program which copies lines from one terminal to the terminal of another user. The talk package can be removed with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase talk
Rationale:
The talk software presents a security risk as it uses unencrypted protocols for communications. Removing the talk package decreases the risk of the accidental (or intentional) activation of talk client program.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_talk_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), R62, 2.2.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure talk is removed
  package:
    name: talk
    state: absent
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_talk_removed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_talk

class remove_talk {
  package { 'talk':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

package --remove=talk

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove talk
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on talk. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "talk" ; then

    yum remove -y "talk"

fi
Group   Telnet   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   The telnet protocol does not provide confidentiality or integrity for information transmitted on the network. This includes authentication information such as passwords. Organizations which use telnet should be actively working to migrate to a more secure protocol.

Rule   Uninstall telnet-server Package   [ref]

The telnet-server package can be removed with the following command:
$ sudo yum erase telnet-server
Rationale:
It is detrimental for operating systems to provide, or install by default, functionality exceeding requirements or mission objectives. These unnecessary capabilities are often overlooked and therefore may remain unsecure. They increase the risk to the platform by providing additional attack vectors.
The telnet service provides an unencrypted remote access service which does not provide for the confidentiality and integrity of user passwords or the remote session. If a privileged user were to login using this service, the privileged user password could be compromised.
Removing the telnet-server package decreases the risk of the telnet service's accidental (or intentional) activation.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_telnet-server_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 12, 14, 15, 3, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS06.06, CCI-000381, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.9.1.2, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4, Req-2.2.2, SRG-OS-000095-GPOS-00049, R62, 2.2.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure telnet-server is removed
  package:
    name: telnet-server
    state: absent
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.2
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_telnet-server_removed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_telnet-server

class remove_telnet-server {
  package { 'telnet-server':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

package --remove=telnet-server

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove telnet-server
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on telnet-server. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "telnet-server" ; then

    yum remove -y "telnet-server"

fi

Rule   Remove telnet Clients   [ref]

The telnet client allows users to start connections to other systems via the telnet protocol.
Rationale:
The telnet protocol is insecure and unencrypted. The use of an unencrypted transmission medium could allow an unauthorized user to steal credentials. The ssh package provides an encrypted session and stronger security and is included in Oracle Linux 9.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_telnet_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  3.1.13, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), A.8.2.3, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, R62, 2.2.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure telnet is removed
  package:
    name: telnet
    state: absent
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.13
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.4
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_telnet_removed

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_telnet

class remove_telnet {
  package { 'telnet':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

package --remove=telnet

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove telnet
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on telnet. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "telnet" ; then

    yum remove -y "telnet"

fi

Rule   Disable telnet Service   [ref]

Make sure that the activation of the telnet service on system boot is disabled. The telnet socket can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now telnet.socket
Warning:  If the system relies on xinetd to manage telnet sessions, ensure the telnet service is disabled by the following line: disable = yes. Note that the xinetd file for telnet is not created automatically, therefore it might have different names.
Rationale:
The telnet protocol uses unencrypted network communication, which means that data from the login session, including passwords and all other information transmitted during the session, can be stolen by eavesdroppers on the network. The telnet protocol is also subject to man-in-the-middle attacks.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_telnet_disabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 8, 9, APO13.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, DSS06.10, 3.1.13, 3.4.7, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.18.1.4, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), IA-5(1)(c), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-3, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, PR.PT-4



[customizations.services]
masked = ["telnet"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.13
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - disable_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_telnet_disabled

- name: Disable telnet Service - Collect systemd Services Present in the System
  ansible.builtin.command: systemctl -q list-unit-files --type service
  register: service_exists
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: service_exists.rc not in [0, 1]
  check_mode: false
  when: ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman",
    "container"] and "telnet-server" in ansible_facts.packages )
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.13
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - disable_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_telnet_disabled

- name: Disable telnet Service - Ensure "telnet.service" is Masked
  ansible.builtin.systemd:
    name: telnet.service
    state: stopped
    enabled: false
    masked: true
  when:
  - ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    and "telnet-server" in ansible_facts.packages )
  - service_exists.stdout_lines is search("telnet.service",multiline=True)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.13
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - disable_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_telnet_disabled

- name: Unit Socket Exists - telnet.socket
  ansible.builtin.command: systemctl -q list-unit-files telnet.socket
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: socket_file_exists.rc not in [0, 1]
  check_mode: false
  when: ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman",
    "container"] and "telnet-server" in ansible_facts.packages )
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.13
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - disable_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_telnet_disabled

- name: Disable socket telnet
  ansible.builtin.systemd:
    name: telnet.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    and "telnet-server" in ansible_facts.packages )
  - socket_file_exists.stdout_lines is search("telnet.socket",multiline=True)
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.13
  - NIST-800-171-3.4.7
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(c)
  - disable_strategy
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_telnet_disabled

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include disable_telnet

class disable_telnet {
  service {'telnet':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if ( [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q telnet-server ); then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" stop 'telnet.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" disable 'telnet.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" mask 'telnet.service'
# Disable socket activation if we have a unit file for it
if "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" -q list-unit-files telnet.socket; then
    "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" stop 'telnet.socket'
    "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" mask 'telnet.socket'
fi
# The service may not be running because it has been started and failed,
# so let's reset the state so OVAL checks pass.
# Service should be 'inactive', not 'failed' after reboot though.
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" reset-failed 'telnet.service' || true

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Proxy Server   Group contains 1 group and 2 rules
[ref]   A proxy server is a very desirable target for a potential adversary because much (or all) sensitive data for a given infrastructure may flow through it. Therefore, if one is required, the system acting as a proxy server should be dedicated to that purpose alone and be stored in a physically secure location. The system's default proxy server software is Squid, and provided in an RPM package of the same name.
Group   Disable Squid if Possible   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   If Squid was installed and activated, but the system does not need to act as a proxy server, then it should be disabled and removed.

Rule   Uninstall squid Package   [ref]

The squid package can be removed with the following command:
 $ sudo yum erase squid
Rationale:
If there is no need to make the proxy server software available, removing it provides a safeguard against its activation.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_squid_removed
Identifiers and References

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Ensure squid is removed
  package:
    name: squid
    state: absent
  tags:
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_squid_removed
  - unknown_severity

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_squid

class remove_squid {
  package { 'squid':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

package --remove=squid

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove squid
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on squid. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

if rpm -q --quiet "squid" ; then

    yum remove -y "squid"

fi

Rule   Disable Squid   [ref]

The squid service can be disabled with the following command:
$ sudo systemctl mask --now squid.service
Rationale:
Running proxy server software provides a network-based avenue of attack, and should be removed if not needed.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_service_squid_disabled
Identifiers and References


[customizations.services]
masked = ["squid"]

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_squid_disabled
  - unknown_severity

- name: Disable Squid - Collect systemd Services Present in the System
  ansible.builtin.command: systemctl -q list-unit-files --type service
  register: service_exists
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: service_exists.rc not in [0, 1]
  check_mode: false
  when: ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman",
    "container"] and "squid" in ansible_facts.packages )
  tags:
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_squid_disabled
  - unknown_severity

- name: Disable Squid - Ensure "squid.service" is Masked
  ansible.builtin.systemd:
    name: squid.service
    state: stopped
    enabled: false
    masked: true
  when:
  - ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    and "squid" in ansible_facts.packages )
  - service_exists.stdout_lines is search("squid.service",multiline=True)
  tags:
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_squid_disabled
  - unknown_severity

- name: Unit Socket Exists - squid.socket
  ansible.builtin.command: systemctl -q list-unit-files squid.socket
  register: socket_file_exists
  changed_when: false
  failed_when: socket_file_exists.rc not in [0, 1]
  check_mode: false
  when: ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman",
    "container"] and "squid" in ansible_facts.packages )
  tags:
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_squid_disabled
  - unknown_severity

- name: Disable socket squid
  ansible.builtin.systemd:
    name: squid.socket
    enabled: 'no'
    state: stopped
    masked: 'yes'
  when:
  - ( ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
    and "squid" in ansible_facts.packages )
  - socket_file_exists.stdout_lines is search("squid.socket",multiline=True)
  tags:
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - service_squid_disabled
  - unknown_severity

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include disable_squid

class disable_squid {
  service {'squid':
    enable => false,
    ensure => 'stopped',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if ( [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q squid ); then

SYSTEMCTL_EXEC='/usr/bin/systemctl'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" stop 'squid.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" disable 'squid.service'
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" mask 'squid.service'
# Disable socket activation if we have a unit file for it
if "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" -q list-unit-files squid.socket; then
    "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" stop 'squid.socket'
    "$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" mask 'squid.socket'
fi
# The service may not be running because it has been started and failed,
# so let's reset the state so OVAL checks pass.
# Service should be 'inactive', not 'failed' after reboot though.
"$SYSTEMCTL_EXEC" reset-failed 'squid.service' || true

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   SSH Server   Group contains 1 group and 10 rules
[ref]   The SSH protocol is recommended for remote login and remote file transfer. SSH provides confidentiality and integrity for data exchanged between two systems, as well as server authentication, through the use of public key cryptography. The implementation included with the system is called OpenSSH, and more detailed documentation is available from its website, https://www.openssh.com. Its server program is called sshd and provided by the RPM package openssh-server.
Group   Configure OpenSSH Server if Necessary   Group contains 10 rules
[ref]   If the system needs to act as an SSH server, then certain changes should be made to the OpenSSH daemon configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config. The following recommendations can be applied to this file. See the sshd_config(5) man page for more detailed information.

Rule   Disable SSH Access via Empty Passwords   [ref]

Disallow SSH login with empty passwords. The default SSH configuration disables logins with empty passwords. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for PermitEmptyPasswords.
To explicitly disallow SSH login from accounts with empty passwords, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
PermitEmptyPasswords no
Any accounts with empty passwords should be disabled immediately, and PAM configuration should prevent users from being able to assign themselves empty passwords.
Rationale:
Configuring this setting for the SSH daemon provides additional assurance that remote login via SSH will require a password, even in the event of misconfiguration elsewhere.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_disable_empty_passwords
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 9, 5.5.6, APO01.06, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, 3.1.1, 3.1.5, CCI-000366, CCI-000766, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 5.2, SR 7.6, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-17(a), CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.DS-5, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, FIA_UAU.1, Req-2.2.4, SRG-OS-000106-GPOS-00053, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00229, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.4
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_empty_passwords

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*PermitEmptyPasswords.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.4
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_empty_passwords

- name: Disable SSH Access via Empty Passwords
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords\s+
      line: PermitEmptyPasswords no
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.4
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_empty_passwords

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PermitEmptyPasswords\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "PermitEmptyPasswords no" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable GSSAPI Authentication   [ref]

Unless needed, SSH should not permit extraneous or unnecessary authentication mechanisms like GSSAPI.
The default SSH configuration disallows authentications based on GSSAPI. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for GSSAPIAuthentication.
To explicitly disable GSSAPI authentication, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
GSSAPIAuthentication no
Rationale:
GSSAPI authentication is used to provide additional authentication mechanisms to applications. Allowing GSSAPI authentication through SSH exposes the system's GSSAPI to remote hosts, increasing the attack surface of the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_disable_gssapi_auth
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.1.12, CCI-000318, CCI-000368, CCI-001812, CCI-001813, CCI-001814, CCI-000366, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, 0418, 1055, 1402, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), AC-17(a), PR.IP-1, FTP_ITC_EXT.1, FCS_SSH_EXT.1.2, SRG-OS-000364-GPOS-00151, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_gssapi_auth

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*GSSAPIAuthentication.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_gssapi_auth

- name: Disable GSSAPI Authentication
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*GSSAPIAuthentication\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*GSSAPIAuthentication\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*GSSAPIAuthentication\s+
      line: GSSAPIAuthentication no
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_gssapi_auth

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*GSSAPIAuthentication/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*GSSAPIAuthentication\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "GSSAPIAuthentication no" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable SSH Support for .rhosts Files   [ref]

SSH can emulate the behavior of the obsolete rsh command in allowing users to enable insecure access to their accounts via .rhosts files.
The default SSH configuration disables support for .rhosts. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for IgnoreRhosts.
To explicitly disable support for .rhosts files, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
IgnoreRhosts yes
Rationale:
SSH trust relationships mean a compromise on one host can allow an attacker to move trivially to other hosts.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_disable_rhosts
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 9, 5.5.6, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, 3.1.12, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-17(a), CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.IP-1, PR.PT-3, FIA_UAU.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_rhosts

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*IgnoreRhosts.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_rhosts

- name: Disable SSH Support for .rhosts Files
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*IgnoreRhosts\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*IgnoreRhosts\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*IgnoreRhosts\s+
      line: IgnoreRhosts yes
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_rhosts

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*IgnoreRhosts/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*IgnoreRhosts\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "IgnoreRhosts yes" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable SSH Support for User Known Hosts   [ref]

SSH can allow system users to connect to systems if a cache of the remote systems public keys is available. This should be disabled.

To ensure this behavior is disabled, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes
Rationale:
Configuring this setting for the SSH daemon provides additional assurance that remote login via SSH will require a password, even in the event of misconfiguration elsewhere.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_disable_user_known_hosts
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.1.12, CCI-000366, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, AC-17(a), CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, FIA_UAU.1, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_user_known_hosts

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*IgnoreUserKnownHosts.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_user_known_hosts

- name: Disable SSH Support for User Known Hosts
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*IgnoreUserKnownHosts\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*IgnoreUserKnownHosts\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*IgnoreUserKnownHosts\s+
      line: IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_disable_user_known_hosts

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*IgnoreUserKnownHosts/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*IgnoreUserKnownHosts\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Do Not Allow SSH Environment Options   [ref]

Ensure that users are not able to override environment variables of the SSH daemon.
The default SSH configuration disables environment processing. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for PermitUserEnvironment.
To explicitly disable Environment options, add or correct the following /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
PermitUserEnvironment no
Rationale:
SSH environment options potentially allow users to bypass access restriction in some configurations.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_do_not_permit_user_env
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, 5.5.6, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, 3.1.12, CCI-000366, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, AC-17(a), CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, Req-2.2.4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00229, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.4
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_do_not_permit_user_env

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*PermitUserEnvironment.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.4
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_do_not_permit_user_env

- name: Do Not Allow SSH Environment Options
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PermitUserEnvironment\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PermitUserEnvironment\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PermitUserEnvironment\s+
      line: PermitUserEnvironment no
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.5.6
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-2.2.4
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_do_not_permit_user_env

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PermitUserEnvironment/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PermitUserEnvironment\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "PermitUserEnvironment no" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Enable Use of Strict Mode Checking   [ref]

SSHs StrictModes option checks file and ownership permissions in the user's home directory .ssh folder before accepting login. If world- writable permissions are found, logon is rejected.
The default SSH configuration has StrictModes enabled. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for StrictModes.
To explicitly enable StrictModes in SSH, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
StrictModes yes
Rationale:
If other users have access to modify user-specific SSH configuration files, they may be able to log into the system as another user.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_enable_strictmodes
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, 3.1.12, CCI-000366, 164.308(a)(4)(i), 164.308(b)(1), 164.308(b)(3), 164.310(b), 164.312(e)(1), 164.312(e)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.7.3, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, AC-6, AC-17(a), CM-6(a), PR.AC-4, PR.DS-5, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_enable_strictmodes

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*StrictModes.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_enable_strictmodes

- name: Enable Use of Strict Mode Checking
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*StrictModes\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*StrictModes\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*StrictModes\s+
      line: StrictModes yes
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_enable_strictmodes

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*StrictModes/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*StrictModes\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "StrictModes yes" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Enable SSH Print Last Log   [ref]

Ensure that SSH will display the date and time of the last successful account logon.
The default SSH configuration enables print of the date and time of the last login. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for PrintLastLog.
To explicitly enable LastLog in SSH, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
PrintLastLog yes
Rationale:
Providing users feedback on when account accesses last occurred facilitates user recognition and reporting of unauthorized account use.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_print_last_log
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, CCI-000052, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, AC-9, AC-9(1), PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-9
  - NIST-800-53-AC-9(1)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_print_last_log

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*PrintLastLog.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-9
  - NIST-800-53-AC-9(1)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_print_last_log

- name: Enable SSH Print Last Log
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PrintLastLog\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PrintLastLog\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*PrintLastLog\s+
      line: PrintLastLog yes
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-9
  - NIST-800-53-AC-9(1)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_print_last_log

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PrintLastLog/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*PrintLastLog\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "PrintLastLog yes" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set LogLevel to INFO   [ref]

The INFO parameter specifices that record login and logout activity will be logged.
The default SSH configuration sets the log level to INFO. The appropriate configuration is used if no value is set for LogLevel.
To explicitly specify the log level in SSH, add or correct the following line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config:
LogLevel INFO
Rationale:
SSH provides several logging levels with varying amounts of verbosity. DEBUG is specifically not recommended other than strictly for debugging SSH communications since it provides so much data that it is difficult to identify important security information. INFO level is the basic level that only records login activity of SSH users. In many situations, such as Incident Response, it is important to determine when a particular user was active on a system. The logout record can eliminate those users who disconnected, which helps narrow the field.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_set_loglevel_info
Identifiers and References

References:  AC-17(a), CM-6(a)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find sshd_config included files
  shell: |-
    included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*Include\s*//i' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
    [[ -n $included_files ]] && ls $included_files || true
  register: sshd_config_included_files
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_set_loglevel_info

- name: Comment conf from included files
  replace:
    path: '{{ item }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*LogLevel.*)$
    replace: '# \1'
  loop: '{{ sshd_config_included_files.stdout_lines }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_set_loglevel_info

- name: Set LogLevel to INFO
  block:

  - name: Check for duplicate values
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*LogLevel\s+
      state: absent
    check_mode: true
    changed_when: false
    register: dupes

  - name: Deduplicate values from /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*LogLevel\s+
      state: absent
    when: dupes.found is defined and dupes.found > 1

  - name: Insert correct line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    lineinfile:
      path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
      create: true
      regexp: (?i)^\s*LogLevel\s+
      line: LogLevel INFO
      state: present
      insertbefore: BOF
      validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-17(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sshd_set_loglevel_info

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

# Find the include keyword, extract from the line the glob expression representing included files.
# And if it is a relative path prepend '/etc/ssh/'
included_files=$(grep -oP "^\s*(?i)include.*" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | sed -e 's/\s*include\s*//I' | sed -e 's|^[^/]|/etc/ssh/&|')
for included_file in ${included_files} ; do
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*LogLevel/Id" "$included_file"
done

if [ -e "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" ] ; then
    
    LC_ALL=C sed -i "/^\s*LogLevel\s\+/Id" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
else
    touch "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
fi
# make sure file has newline at the end
sed -i -e '$a\' "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"

cp "/etc/ssh/sshd_config" "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"
# Insert at the beginning of the file
printf '%s\n' "LogLevel INFO" > "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
cat "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak" >> "/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
# Clean up after ourselves.
rm "/etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Distribute the SSH Server configuration to multiple files in a config directory.   [ref]

Make sure to have the Include /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/*.conf line in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file. Ideally, don't have any active configuration directives in that file, and distribute the service configuration to several files in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d directory.
Rationale:
This form of distributed configuration is considered as a good practice, and as other sshd rules assume that directives in files in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d config directory are effective, there has to be a rule that ensures this. Aside from that, having multiple configuration files makes the SSH Server configuration changes easier to partition according to the reason that they were introduced, and therefore it should help to perform merges of hardening updates.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sshd_use_directory_configuration
Identifiers and References

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

if test -f /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/sshd_config_original.conf; then
	printf '%s\n' "Remediation probably already happened, '/etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/sshd_config_original.conf' already exists, not doing anything." >&2
false 1
elif grep -Eq '^\s*Include\s+/etc/ssh/sshd_config\.d/\*\.conf' /etc/ssh/sshd_config && ! grep -Eq '^\s*Match\s' /etc/ssh/sshd_config; then
	printf '%s\n' "Remediation probably already happened, '/etc/ssh/sshd_config' already contains the include directive." >&2
false 1
else
	mkdir -p /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d
	mv /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/sshd_config_original.conf
cat > /etc/ssh/sshd_config << EOF
# To modify the system-wide sshd configuration, create a  *.conf  file under
#  /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/  which will be automatically included below

Include /etc/ssh/sshd_config.d/*.conf
EOF
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   System Accounting with auditd   Group contains 7 groups and 28 rules
[ref]   The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html-single/selinux_users_and_administrators_guide/index#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
Group   Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   Group contains 5 groups and 21 rules
[ref]   The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:
  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart
Group   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255, R73, 10.3.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit chmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"audit" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && rpm --quiet -q audit && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="chmod"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c),