Guide to the Secure Configuration of Ubuntu 22.04

with profile CIS Ubuntu 22.04 Level 2 Server Benchmark
This baseline aligns to the Center for Internet Security Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Benchmark, v1.0.0, released 08-30-2022.
This guide presents a catalog of security-relevant configuration settings for Ubuntu 22.04. It is a rendering of content structured in the eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format (XCCDF) in order to support security automation. The SCAP content is is available in the scap-security-guide package which is developed at https://www.open-scap.org/security-policies/scap-security-guide.

Providing system administrators with such guidance informs them how to securely configure systems under their control in a variety of network roles. Policy makers and baseline creators can use this catalog of settings, with its associated references to higher-level security control catalogs, in order to assist them in security baseline creation. This guide is a catalog, not a checklist, and satisfaction of every item is not likely to be possible or sensible in many operational scenarios. However, the XCCDF format enables granular selection and adjustment of settings, and their association with OVAL and OCIL content provides an automated checking capability. Transformations of this document, and its associated automated checking content, are capable of providing baselines that meet a diverse set of policy objectives. Some example XCCDF Profiles, which are selections of items that form checklists and can be used as baselines, are available with this guide. They can be processed, in an automated fashion, with tools that support the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). The DISA STIG, which provides required settings for US Department of Defense systems, is one example of a baseline created from this guidance.
Do not attempt to implement any of the settings in this guide without first testing them in a non-operational environment. The creators of this guidance assume no responsibility whatsoever for its use by other parties, and makes no guarantees, expressed or implied, about its quality, reliability, or any other characteristic.

Profile Information

Profile TitleCIS Ubuntu 22.04 Level 2 Server Benchmark
Profile IDxccdf_org.ssgproject.content_profile_cis_level2_server

CPE Platforms

  • cpe:/o:canonical:ubuntu_linux:22.04::~~lts~~~

Revision History

Current version: 0.1.73

  • draft (as of 2024-02-23)

Table of Contents

  1. System Settings
    1. Installing and Maintaining Software
    2. Account and Access Control
    3. System Accounting with auditd
    4. AppArmor
    5. GRUB2 bootloader configuration
    6. Configure Syslog
    7. Network Configuration and Firewalls
    8. File Permissions and Masks
  2. Services
    1. Apport Service
    2. Avahi Server
    3. Cron and At Daemons
    4. Deprecated services
    5. DHCP
    6. DNS Server
    7. FTP Server
    8. Web Server
    9. IMAP and POP3 Server
    10. LDAP
    11. Mail Server Software
    12. NFS and RPC
    13. Network Time Protocol
    14. Obsolete Services
    15. Print Support
    16. Proxy Server
    17. Samba(SMB) Microsoft Windows File Sharing Server
    18. SNMP Server
    19. SSH Server
    20. X Window System

Checklist

Group   Guide to the Secure Configuration of Ubuntu 22.04   Group contains 113 groups and 387 rules
Group   System Settings   Group contains 69 groups and 300 rules
[ref]   Contains rules that check correct system settings.
Group   Installing and Maintaining Software   Group contains 9 groups and 25 rules
[ref]   The following sections contain information on security-relevant choices during the initial operating system installation process and the setup of software updates.
Group   System and Software Integrity   Group contains 2 groups and 5 rules
[ref]   System and software integrity can be gained by installing antivirus, increasing system encryption strength with FIPS, verifying installed software, enabling SELinux, installing an Intrusion Prevention System, etc. However, installing or enabling integrity checking tools cannot prevent intrusions, but they can detect that an intrusion may have occurred. Requirements for integrity checking may be highly dependent on the environment in which the system will be used. Snapshot-based approaches such as AIDE may induce considerable overhead in the presence of frequent software updates.
Group   Software Integrity Checking   Group contains 1 group and 4 rules
[ref]   Both the AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) software and the RPM package management system provide mechanisms for verifying the integrity of installed software. AIDE uses snapshots of file metadata (such as hashes) and compares these to current system files in order to detect changes.

The RPM package management system can conduct integrity checks by comparing information in its metadata database with files installed on the system.
Group   Verify Integrity with AIDE   Group contains 4 rules
[ref]   AIDE conducts integrity checks by comparing information about files with previously-gathered information. Ideally, the AIDE database is created immediately after initial system configuration, and then again after any software update. AIDE is highly configurable, with further configuration information located in /usr/share/doc/aide-VERSION .

Rule   Install AIDE   [ref]

The aide package can be installed with the following command:
$ apt-get install aide
Rationale:
The AIDE package must be installed if it is to be available for integrity checking.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_aide_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, CCI-002696, CCI-002699, CCI-001744, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, 1034, 1288, 1341, 1417, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199, 1.3.1, BP28(R76), BP28(R79), 11.5.2


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y "aide"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi


[[packages]]
name = "aide"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_aide

class install_aide {
  package { 'aide':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure aide is installed
  package:
    name: aide
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_aide_installed

Rule   Build and Test AIDE Database   [ref]

Run the following command to generate a new database:
$ sudo aideinit
By default, the database will be written to the file /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new. Storing the database, the configuration file /etc/aide.conf, and the binary /usr/bin/aide (or hashes of these files), in a secure location (such as on read-only media) provides additional assurance about their integrity. The newly-generated database can be installed as follows:
$ sudo cp /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new /var/lib/aide/aide.db
To initiate a manual check, run the following command:
$ sudo /usr/bin/aide --check
If this check produces any unexpected output, investigate.
Rationale:
For AIDE to be effective, an initial database of "known-good" information about files must be captured and it should be able to be verified against the installed files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_build_database
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000445-GPOS-00199, 1.3.1, BP28(R76), BP28(R79), 11.5.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y "aide"

AIDE_CONFIG=/etc/aide/aide.conf
DEFAULT_DB_PATH=/var/lib/aide/aide.db

# Fix db path in the config file, if necessary
if ! grep -q '^database=file:' ${AIDE_CONFIG}; then
    # replace_or_append gets confused by 'database=file' as a key, so should not be used.
    #replace_or_append "${AIDE_CONFIG}" '^database=file' "${DEFAULT_DB_PATH}" '@CCENUM@' '%s:%s'
    echo "database=file:${DEFAULT_DB_PATH}" >> ${AIDE_CONFIG}
fi

# Fix db out path in the config file, if necessary
if ! grep -q '^database_out=file:' ${AIDE_CONFIG}; then
    echo "database_out=file:${DEFAULT_DB_PATH}.new" >> ${AIDE_CONFIG}
fi

/usr/sbin/aideinit -y -f

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Ensure AIDE Is Installed
  ansible.builtin.apt:
    name: aide
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Check if DB Path in /etc/aide/aide.conf Is
    Already Set
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    regexp: ^#?(\s*)(database=)(.*)$
    state: absent
  check_mode: true
  changed_when: false
  register: database_replace
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Check if DB Out Path in /etc/aide/aide.conf
    Is Already Set
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    regexp: ^#?(\s*)(database_out=)(.*)$
    state: absent
  check_mode: true
  changed_when: false
  register: database_out_replace
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Fix DB Path in Config File if Necessary
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    regexp: ^#?(\s*)(database)(\s*)=(\s*)(.*)$
    line: \2\3=\4file:/var/lib/aide/aide.db
    backrefs: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - database_replace.found > 0
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Fix DB Out Path in Config File if Necessary
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    regexp: ^#?(\s*)(database_out)(\s*)=(\s*)(.*)$
    line: \2\3=\4file:/var/lib/aide/aide.db.new
    backrefs: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - database_out_replace.found > 0
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Ensure the Default DB Path is Added
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    line: database=file:/var/lib/aide/aide.db
    create: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - database_replace.found == 0
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Ensure the Default Out Path is Added
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    line: database_out=file:/var/lib/aide/aide.db.new
    create: true
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - database_out_replace.found == 0
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Build and Test AIDE Database - Build and Test AIDE Database
  ansible.builtin.command: /usr/sbin/aideinit -y -f
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_build_database
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Configure AIDE to Verify the Audit Tools   [ref]

The operating system file integrity tool must be configured to protect the integrity of the audit tools.
Rationale:
Protecting the integrity of the tools used for auditing purposes is a critical step toward ensuring the integrity of audit information. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. Audit tools include but are not limited to vendor-provided and open-source audit tools needed to successfully view and manipulate audit information system activity and records. Audit tools include custom queries and report generators. It is not uncommon for attackers to replace the audit tools or inject code into the existing tools to provide the capability to hide or erase system activity from the audit logs. To address this risk, audit tools must be cryptographically signed to provide the capability to identify when the audit tools have been modified, manipulated, or replaced. An example is a checksum hash of the file or files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_check_audit_tools
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-001496, AU-9(3), AU-9(3).1, SRG-OS-000278-GPOS-00108, 4.1.4.11


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y "aide"










if grep -i '^.*/usr/sbin/auditctl.*$' /etc/aide/aide.conf; then
sed -i "s#.*/usr/sbin/auditctl.*#/usr/sbin/auditctl p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512#" /etc/aide/aide.conf
else
echo "/usr/sbin/auditctl p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512" >> /etc/aide/aide.conf
fi

if grep -i '^.*/usr/sbin/auditd.*$' /etc/aide/aide.conf; then
sed -i "s#.*/usr/sbin/auditd.*#/usr/sbin/auditd p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512#" /etc/aide/aide.conf
else
echo "/usr/sbin/auditd p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512" >> /etc/aide/aide.conf
fi

if grep -i '^.*/usr/sbin/ausearch.*$' /etc/aide/aide.conf; then
sed -i "s#.*/usr/sbin/ausearch.*#/usr/sbin/ausearch p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512#" /etc/aide/aide.conf
else
echo "/usr/sbin/ausearch p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512" >> /etc/aide/aide.conf
fi

if grep -i '^.*/usr/sbin/aureport.*$' /etc/aide/aide.conf; then
sed -i "s#.*/usr/sbin/aureport.*#/usr/sbin/aureport p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512#" /etc/aide/aide.conf
else
echo "/usr/sbin/aureport p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512" >> /etc/aide/aide.conf
fi

if grep -i '^.*/usr/sbin/autrace.*$' /etc/aide/aide.conf; then
sed -i "s#.*/usr/sbin/autrace.*#/usr/sbin/autrace p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512#" /etc/aide/aide.conf
else
echo "/usr/sbin/autrace p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512" >> /etc/aide/aide.conf
fi

if grep -i '^.*/usr/sbin/augenrules.*$' /etc/aide/aide.conf; then
sed -i "s#.*/usr/sbin/augenrules.*#/usr/sbin/augenrules p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512#" /etc/aide/aide.conf
else
echo "/usr/sbin/augenrules p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512" >> /etc/aide/aide.conf
fi

if grep -i '^.*/usr/sbin/audispd.*$' /etc/aide/aide.conf; then
sed -i "s#.*/usr/sbin/audispd.*#/usr/sbin/audispd p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512#" /etc/aide/aide.conf
else
echo "/usr/sbin/audispd p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512" >> /etc/aide/aide.conf
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure aide is installed
  package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
  - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3).1
  - aide_check_audit_tools
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set audit_tools fact
  set_fact:
    audit_tools:
    - /usr/sbin/audispd
    - /usr/sbin/auditctl
    - /usr/sbin/auditd
    - /usr/sbin/augenrules
    - /usr/sbin/aureport
    - /usr/sbin/ausearch
    - /usr/sbin/autrace
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3).1
  - aide_check_audit_tools
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure existing AIDE configuration for audit tools are correct
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    regexp: ^{{ item }}\s
    line: '{{ item }} p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512'
  with_items: '{{ audit_tools }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3).1
  - aide_check_audit_tools
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure AIDE to properly protect audit tools
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/aide/aide.conf
    line: '{{ item }} p+i+n+u+g+s+b+acl+xattrs+sha512'
  with_items: '{{ audit_tools }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-9(3).1
  - aide_check_audit_tools
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE   [ref]

At a minimum, AIDE should be configured to run a weekly scan. To implement a daily execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * * root /usr/bin/aide --config /etc/aide/aide.conf --check
To implement a weekly execution of AIDE at 4:05am using cron, add the following line to /etc/crontab:
05 4 * * 0 root /usr/bin/aide --config /etc/aide/aide.conf --check
AIDE can be executed periodically through other means; this is merely one example. The usage of cron's special time codes, such as @daily and @weekly is acceptable.
Rationale:
By default, AIDE does not install itself for periodic execution. Periodically running AIDE is necessary to reveal unexpected changes in installed files.

Unauthorized changes to the baseline configuration could make the system vulnerable to various attacks or allow unauthorized access to the operating system. Changes to operating system configurations can have unintended side effects, some of which may be relevant to security.

Detecting such changes and providing an automated response can help avoid unintended, negative consequences that could ultimately affect the security state of the operating system. The operating system's Information Management Officer (IMO)/Information System Security Officer (ISSO) and System Administrators (SAs) must be notified via email and/or monitoring system trap when there is an unauthorized modification of a configuration item.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_aide_periodic_cron_checking
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 5.10.1.3, APO01.06, BAI01.06, BAI02.01, BAI03.05, BAI06.01, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS04.07, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.02, DSS06.06, CCI-001744, CCI-002699, CCI-002702, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.4, SR 3.1, SR 3.3, SR 3.4, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.6, A.11.2.4, A.12.1.2, A.12.2.1, A.12.4.1, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.8.2.3, SI-7, SI-7(1), CM-6(a), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-7, PR.DS-1, PR.DS-6, PR.DS-8, PR.IP-1, PR.IP-3, Req-11.5, SRG-OS-000363-GPOS-00150, SRG-OS-000446-GPOS-00200, SRG-OS-000447-GPOS-00201, 1.3.2, BP28(R76), 11.5.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y "aide"

# AiDE usually adds its own cron jobs to /etc/cron.daily. If script is there, this rule is
# compliant. Otherwise, we copy the script to the /etc/cron.weekly
if ! grep -Eq '^(\/usr\/bin\/)?aide(\.wrapper)?\s+' /etc/cron.*/*; then
    cp -f /usr/share/aide/config/cron.daily/aide /etc/cron.weekly/
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure AIDE is installed
  package:
    name: '{{ item }}'
    state: present
  with_items:
  - aide
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_periodic_cron_checking
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set cron package name - RedHat
  set_fact:
    cron_pkg_name: cronie
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_os_family == "RedHat" or ansible_os_family == "Suse"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_periodic_cron_checking
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set cron package name - Debian
  set_fact:
    cron_pkg_name: cron
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_os_family == "Debian"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_periodic_cron_checking
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Install cron
  package:
    name: '{{ cron_pkg_name }}'
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_periodic_cron_checking
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Configure Periodic Execution of AIDE
  cron:
    name: run AIDE check
    minute: 5
    hour: 4
    weekday: 0
    user: root
    job: /usr/bin/aide --check
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.10.1.3
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7
  - NIST-800-53-SI-7(1)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-11.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-11.5.2
  - aide_periodic_cron_checking
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Disk Partitioning   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   To ensure separation and protection of data, there are top-level system directories which should be placed on their own physical partition or logical volume. The installer's default partitioning scheme creates separate logical volumes for /, /boot, and swap.
  • If starting with any of the default layouts, check the box to \"Review and modify partitioning.\" This allows for the easy creation of additional logical volumes inside the volume group already created, though it may require making /'s logical volume smaller to create space. In general, using logical volumes is preferable to using partitions because they can be more easily adjusted later.
  • If creating a custom layout, create the partitions mentioned in the previous paragraph (which the installer will require anyway), as well as separate ones described in the following sections.
If a system has already been installed, and the default partitioning scheme was used, it is possible but nontrivial to modify it to create separate logical volumes for the directories listed above. The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) makes this possible. See the LVM HOWTO at http://tldp.org/HOWTO/LVM-HOWTO/ for more detailed information on LVM.

Rule   Ensure /home Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

If user home directories will be stored locally, create a separate partition for /home at installation time (or migrate it later using LVM). If /home will be mounted from another system such as an NFS server, then creating a separate partition is not necessary at installation time, and the mountpoint can instead be configured later.
Rationale:
Ensuring that /home is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, and also helps ensure that users cannot trivially fill partitions used for log or audit data storage.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_home
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, CCI-001208, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.1.7.1, BP28(R28)

Rule   Ensure /tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
The /tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_tmp
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.1.2.1, BP28(R28)

Rule   Ensure /var Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var directory is used by daemons and other system services to store frequently-changing data. Ensure that /var has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
Ensuring that /var is mounted on its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options. This helps protect system services such as daemons or other programs which use it. It is not uncommon for the /var directory to contain world-writable directories installed by other software packages.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 15, 8, APO13.01, DSS05.02, CCI-000366, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CM-6(a), SC-5(2), PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.1.3.1, BP28(R28)

Rule   Ensure /var/log Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

System logs are stored in the /var/log directory. Ensure that /var/log has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
Placing /var/log in its own partition enables better separation between log files and other files in /var/.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_log
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 14, 15, 16, 3, 5, 6, 8, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, CIP-007-3 R6.5, CM-6(a), AU-4, SC-5(2), PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.1.5.1, BP28(R28)

Rule   Ensure /var/log/audit Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

Audit logs are stored in the /var/log/audit directory. Ensure that /var/log/audit has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM. Make absolutely certain that it is large enough to store all audit logs that will be created by the auditing daemon.
Rationale:
Placing /var/log/audit in its own partition enables better separation between audit files and other files, and helps ensure that auditing cannot be halted due to the partition running out of space.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_log_audit
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, APO11.04, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI04.04, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.07, MEA02.01, CCI-000366, CCI-001849, 164.312(a)(2)(ii), 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 7.1, SR 7.2, SR 7.6, A.12.1.3, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.17.2.1, CIP-007-3 R6.5, CM-6(a), AU-4, SC-5(2), PR.DS-4, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000341-GPOS-00132, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-APP-000357-CTR-000800, 1.1.6.1, BP28(R71)

Rule   Ensure /var/tmp Located On Separate Partition   [ref]

The /var/tmp directory is a world-writable directory used for temporary file storage. Ensure it has its own partition or logical volume at installation time, or migrate it using LVM.
Rationale:
The /var/tmp partition is used as temporary storage by many programs. Placing /var/tmp in its own partition enables the setting of more restrictive mount options, which can help protect programs which use it.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_partition_for_var_tmp
Identifiers and References

References:  SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.1.4.1, BP28(R28)

Group   GNOME Desktop Environment   Group contains 3 groups and 8 rules
[ref]   GNOME is a graphical desktop environment bundled with many Linux distributions that allow users to easily interact with the operating system graphically rather than textually. The GNOME Graphical Display Manager (GDM) provides login, logout, and user switching contexts as well as display server management.

GNOME is developed by the GNOME Project and is considered the default Red Hat Graphical environment.

For more information on GNOME and the GNOME Project, see https://www.gnome.org.
Group   Configure GNOME Login Screen   Group contains 2 rules

Rule   Disable the GNOME3 Login User List   [ref]

In the default graphical environment, users logging directly into the system are greeted with a login screen that displays all known users. This functionality should be disabled by setting disable-user-list to true.

To disable, add or edit disable-user-list to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
disable-user-list=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/disable-user-list
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Rationale:
Leaving the user list enabled is a security risk since it allows anyone with physical access to the system to quickly enumerate known user accounts without logging in.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_disable_user_list
Identifiers and References

References:  CM-6(a), AC-23, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.8.3


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; }; then

# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
                                | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|gdm.d' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -ne 0 ]
then
    if grep -q "^\\s*disable-user-list\\s*=" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        
        sed -Ei "s/(^\s*)disable-user-list(\s*=)/#\1disable-user-list\2/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

[ ! -z "${DCONFFILE}" ] && echo "" >> "${DCONFFILE}"
if ! grep -q "\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/login-screen]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
fi

escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "true")"
if grep -q "^\\s*disable-user-list\\s*=" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
        sed -i "s/\\s*disable-user-list\\s*=\\s*.*/disable-user-list=${escaped_value}/g" "${DCONFFILE}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]|a\\disable-user-list=${escaped_value}" "${DCONFFILE}"
fi

dconf update
# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
LOCKFILES=$(grep -r "^/org/gnome/login-screen/disable-user-list$" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
            | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|gdm.d' | grep ":" | cut -d":" -f1)
LOCKSFOLDER="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks"

mkdir -p "${LOCKSFOLDER}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [[ ! -z "${LOCKFILES}" ]]
then
    sed -i -E "s|^/org/gnome/login-screen/disable-user-list$|#&|" "${LOCKFILES[@]}"
fi

if ! grep -qr "^/org/gnome/login-screen/disable-user-list$" /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/
then
    echo "/org/gnome/login-screen/disable-user-list" >> "/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock"
fi

dconf update

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable XDMCP in GDM   [ref]

XDMCP is an unencrypted protocol, and therefore, presents a security risk, see e.g. XDMCP Gnome docs. To disable XDMCP support in Gnome, set Enable to false under the [xdmcp] configuration section in /etc/gdm/custom.conf. For example:
[xdmcp]
Enable=false
Rationale:
XDMCP provides unencrypted remote access through the Gnome Display Manager (GDM) which does not provide for the confidentiality and integrity of user passwords or the remote session. If a privileged user were to login using XDMCP, the privileged user password could be compromised due to typed XEvents and keystrokes will traversing over the network in clear text.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_gnome_gdm_disable_xdmcp
Identifiers and References

References:  1.8.10


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

# Try find '[xdmcp]' and 'Enable' in '/etc/gdm3/custom.conf', if it exists, set
# to 'false', if it isn't here, add it, if '[xdmcp]' doesn't exist, add it there
if grep -qzosP '[[:space:]]*\[xdmcp]([^\n\[]*\n+)+?[[:space:]]*Enable' '/etc/gdm3/custom.conf'; then
    
    sed -i "s/Enable[^(\n)]*/Enable=false/" '/etc/gdm3/custom.conf'
elif grep -qs '[[:space:]]*\[xdmcp]' '/etc/gdm3/custom.conf'; then
    sed -i "/[[:space:]]*\[xdmcp]/a Enable=false" '/etc/gdm3/custom.conf'
else
    if test -d "/etc/gdm3"; then
        printf '%s\n' '[xdmcp]' "Enable=false" >> '/etc/gdm3/custom.conf'
    else
        echo "Config file directory '/etc/gdm3' doesnt exist, not remediating, assuming non-applicability." >&2
    fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   GNOME Media Settings   Group contains 3 rules
[ref]   GNOME media settings that apply to the graphical interface.

Rule   Disable GNOME3 Automounting   [ref]

The system's default desktop environment, GNOME3, will mount devices and removable media (such as DVDs, CDs and USB flash drives) whenever they are inserted into the system. To disable automount within GNOME3, add or set automount to false in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]
automount=false
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Rationale:
Disabling automatic mounting in GNOME3 can prevent the introduction of malware via removable media. It will, however, also prevent desktop users from legitimate use of removable media.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_disable_automount
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 16, APO13.01, DSS01.04, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, 3.1.7, CCI-000366, CCI-000778, CCI-001958, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.6, A.11.2.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.AC-6, SRG-OS-000114-GPOS-00059, SRG-OS-000378-GPOS-00163, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.8.6, 3.4.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; }; then

# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
                                | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/local.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -ne 0 ]
then
    if grep -q "^\\s*automount\\s*=" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        
        sed -Ei "s/(^\s*)automount(\s*=)/#\1automount\2/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

[ ! -z "${DCONFFILE}" ] && echo "" >> "${DCONFFILE}"
if ! grep -q "\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
fi

escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "false")"
if grep -q "^\\s*automount\\s*=" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
        sed -i "s/\\s*automount\\s*=\\s*.*/automount=${escaped_value}/g" "${DCONFFILE}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]|a\\automount=${escaped_value}" "${DCONFFILE}"
fi

dconf update
# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
LOCKFILES=$(grep -r "^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount$" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
            | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | grep ":" | cut -d":" -f1)
LOCKSFOLDER="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks"

mkdir -p "${LOCKSFOLDER}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [[ ! -z "${LOCKFILES}" ]]
then
    sed -i -E "s|^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount$|#&|" "${LOCKFILES[@]}"
fi

if ! grep -qr "^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/
then
    echo "/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount" >> "/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock"
fi

dconf update

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable GNOME3 Automount Opening   [ref]

The system's default desktop environment, GNOME3, will mount devices and removable media (such as DVDs, CDs and USB flash drives) whenever they are inserted into the system. To disable automount-open within GNOME3, add or set automount-open to false in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]
automount-open=false
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount-open
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Rationale:
Automatically mounting file systems permits easy introduction of unknown devices, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Disabling automatic mounting in GNOME3 can prevent the introduction of malware via removable media. It will, however, also prevent desktop users from legitimate use of removable media.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_disable_automount_open
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 16, APO13.01, DSS01.04, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, 3.1.7, CCI-000366, CCI-000778, CCI-001958, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.6, A.11.2.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.AC-6, SRG-OS-000114-GPOS-00059, SRG-OS-000378-GPOS-00163, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.8.6, 3.4.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; }; then

# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
                                | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/local.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -ne 0 ]
then
    if grep -q "^\\s*automount-open\\s*=" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        
        sed -Ei "s/(^\s*)automount-open(\s*=)/#\1automount-open\2/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

[ ! -z "${DCONFFILE}" ] && echo "" >> "${DCONFFILE}"
if ! grep -q "\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
fi

escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "false")"
if grep -q "^\\s*automount-open\\s*=" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
        sed -i "s/\\s*automount-open\\s*=\\s*.*/automount-open=${escaped_value}/g" "${DCONFFILE}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]|a\\automount-open=${escaped_value}" "${DCONFFILE}"
fi

dconf update
# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
LOCKFILES=$(grep -r "^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount-open$" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
            | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | grep ":" | cut -d":" -f1)
LOCKSFOLDER="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks"

mkdir -p "${LOCKSFOLDER}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [[ ! -z "${LOCKFILES}" ]]
then
    sed -i -E "s|^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount-open$|#&|" "${LOCKFILES[@]}"
fi

if ! grep -qr "^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount-open$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/
then
    echo "/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/automount-open" >> "/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock"
fi

dconf update

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Disable GNOME3 Automount running   [ref]

The system's default desktop environment, GNOME3, will mount devices and removable media (such as DVDs, CDs and USB flash drives) whenever they are inserted into the system. To disable autorun-never within GNOME3, add or set autorun-never to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]
autorun-never=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/autorun-never
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Rationale:
Automatically mounting file systems permits easy introduction of unknown devices, thereby facilitating malicious activity. Disabling automatic mount running in GNOME3 can prevent the introduction of malware via removable media. It will, however, also prevent desktop users from legitimate use of removable media.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_disable_autorun
Identifiers and References

References:  12, 16, APO13.01, DSS01.04, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, 3.1.7, CCI-000366, CCI-000778, CCI-001958, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.6, A.11.2.6, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), PR.AC-3, PR.AC-6, SRG-OS-000114-GPOS-00059, SRG-OS-000378-GPOS-00163, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.8.8


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; }; then

# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
                                | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/local.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -ne 0 ]
then
    if grep -q "^\\s*autorun-never\\s*=" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        
        sed -Ei "s/(^\s*)autorun-never(\s*=)/#\1autorun-never\2/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

[ ! -z "${DCONFFILE}" ] && echo "" >> "${DCONFFILE}"
if ! grep -q "\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
fi

escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "true")"
if grep -q "^\\s*autorun-never\\s*=" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
        sed -i "s/\\s*autorun-never\\s*=\\s*.*/autorun-never=${escaped_value}/g" "${DCONFFILE}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/desktop/media-handling\\]|a\\autorun-never=${escaped_value}" "${DCONFFILE}"
fi

dconf update
# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
LOCKFILES=$(grep -r "^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/autorun-never$" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
            | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | grep ":" | cut -d":" -f1)
LOCKSFOLDER="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks"

mkdir -p "${LOCKSFOLDER}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [[ ! -z "${LOCKFILES}" ]]
then
    sed -i -E "s|^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/autorun-never$|#&|" "${LOCKFILES[@]}"
fi

if ! grep -qr "^/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/autorun-never$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/
then
    echo "/org/gnome/desktop/media-handling/autorun-never" >> "/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock"
fi

dconf update

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Configure GNOME Screen Locking   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   In the default GNOME3 desktop, the screen can be locked by selecting the user name in the far right corner of the main panel and selecting Lock.

The following sections detail commands to enforce idle activation of the screensaver, screen locking, a blank-screen screensaver, and an idle activation time.

Because users should be trained to lock the screen when they step away from the computer, the automatic locking feature is only meant as a backup.

The root account can be screen-locked; however, the root account should never be used to log into an X Windows environment and should only be used to for direct login via console in emergency circumstances.

For more information about enforcing preferences in the GNOME3 environment using the DConf configuration system, see http://wiki.gnome.org/dconf and the man page dconf(1).

Rule   Set GNOME3 Screensaver Lock Delay After Activation Period   [ref]

To activate the locking delay of the screensaver in the GNOME3 desktop when the screensaver is activated, add or set lock-delay to uint32 0 in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
lock-delay=uint32 0
         
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Rationale:
A session lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not want to logout because of the temporary nature of the absense.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_screensaver_lock_delay
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.10, CCI-000056, CCI-000057, CCI-000060, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, AC-11(a), CM-6(a), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.1.8, SRG-OS-000029-GPOS-00010, SRG-OS-000031-GPOS-00012, 1.8.5, 8.2.8


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; }; then

var_screensaver_lock_delay='0'


# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
                                | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/local.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -ne 0 ]
then
    if grep -q "^\\s*lock-delay\\s*=" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        
        sed -Ei "s/(^\s*)lock-delay(\s*=)/#\1lock-delay\2/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

[ ! -z "${DCONFFILE}" ] && echo "" >> "${DCONFFILE}"
if ! grep -q "\\[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver\\]" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
fi

escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "uint32 ${var_screensaver_lock_delay}")"
if grep -q "^\\s*lock-delay\\s*=" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
        sed -i "s/\\s*lock-delay\\s*=\\s*.*/lock-delay=${escaped_value}/g" "${DCONFFILE}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver\\]|a\\lock-delay=${escaped_value}" "${DCONFFILE}"
fi

dconf update

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Enable GNOME3 Screensaver Lock After Idle Period   [ref]

To activate locking of the screensaver in the GNOME3 desktop when it is activated, add or set lock-enabled to true in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]
lock-enabled=true
Once the settings have been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-enabled
After the settings have been set, run dconf update.
Rationale:
A session lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not want to logout because of the temporary nature of the absense.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_screensaver_lock_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5.5.5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.10, CCI-000056, CCI-000058, CCI-000060, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, Req-8.1.8, SRG-OS-000028-GPOS-00009, SRG-OS-000030-GPOS-00011, 1.8.4, 8.2.8


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; }; then

# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
                                | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/local.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -ne 0 ]
then
    if grep -q "^\\s*lock-enabled\\s*=" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        
        sed -Ei "s/(^\s*)lock-enabled(\s*=)/#\1lock-enabled\2/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

[ ! -z "${DCONFFILE}" ] && echo "" >> "${DCONFFILE}"
if ! grep -q "\\[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver\\]" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
fi

escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "true")"
if grep -q "^\\s*lock-enabled\\s*=" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
        sed -i "s/\\s*lock-enabled\\s*=\\s*.*/lock-enabled=${escaped_value}/g" "${DCONFFILE}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/desktop/screensaver\\]|a\\lock-enabled=${escaped_value}" "${DCONFFILE}"
fi

dconf update
# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
LOCKFILES=$(grep -r "^/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-enabled$" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
            | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|local.d' | grep ":" | cut -d":" -f1)
LOCKSFOLDER="/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks"

mkdir -p "${LOCKSFOLDER}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [[ ! -z "${LOCKFILES}" ]]
then
    sed -i -E "s|^/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-enabled$|#&|" "${LOCKFILES[@]}"
fi

if ! grep -qr "^/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-enabled$" /etc/dconf/db/local.d/
then
    echo "/org/gnome/desktop/screensaver/lock-enabled" >> "/etc/dconf/db/local.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock"
fi

dconf update

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Remove the GDM Package Group   [ref]

By removing the gdm3 package, the system no longer has GNOME installed installed. If X Windows is not installed then the system cannot boot into graphical user mode. This prevents the system from being accidentally or maliciously booted into a graphical.target mode. To do so, run the following command:
$ sudo apt remove gdm3
Rationale:
Unnecessary service packages must not be installed to decrease the attack surface of the system. A graphical environment is unnecessary for certain types of systems including a virtualization hypervisor.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_gdm_removed
Identifiers and References

References:  CM-7(a), CM-7(b), CM-6(a), SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 1.8.1


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

# CAUTION: This remediation script will remove gdm
#	   from the system, and may remove any packages
#	   that depend on gdm. Execute this
#	   remediation AFTER testing on a non-production
#	   system!

DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get remove -y "gdm"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
include remove_gdm

class remove_gdm {
  package { 'gdm':
    ensure => 'purged',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:disable
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_gdm_removed

- name: Ensure gdm is removed
  package:
    name: gdm
    state: absent
  when: '"gdm3" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-7(b)
  - disable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_gdm_removed
Group   Sudo   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   Sudo, which stands for "su 'do'", provides the ability to delegate authority to certain users, groups of users, or system administrators. When configured for system users and/or groups, Sudo can allow a user or group to execute privileged commands that normally only root is allowed to execute.

For more information on Sudo and addition Sudo configuration options, see https://www.sudo.ws.

Rule   Install sudo Package   [ref]

The sudo package can be installed with the following command:
$ apt-get install sudo
Rationale:
sudo is a program designed to allow a system administrator to give limited root privileges to users and log root activity. The basic philosophy is to give as few privileges as possible but still allow system users to get their work done.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_package_sudo_installed
Identifiers and References

References:  1382, 1384, 1386, CM-6(a), FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000324-GPOS-00125, 5.3.1, BP28(R33), 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y "sudo"

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi


[[packages]]
name = "sudo"
version = "*"

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
include install_sudo

class install_sudo {
  package { 'sudo':
    ensure => 'installed',
  }
}

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:enable
- name: Ensure sudo is installed
  package:
    name: sudo
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - enable_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - package_sudo_installed

Rule   Ensure Only Users Logged In To Real tty Can Execute Sudo - sudo use_pty   [ref]

The sudo use_pty tag, when specified, will only execute sudo commands from users logged in to a real tty. This should be enabled by making sure that the use_pty tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Requiring that sudo commands be run in a pseudo-terminal can prevent an attacker from retaining access to the user's terminal after the main program has finished executing.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_add_use_pty
Identifiers and References

References:  Req-10.2.5, 5.3.2, BP28(R39), 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'sudo' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults[\s]*\buse_pty\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option use_pty
        echo "Defaults use_pty" >> /etc/sudoers
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_add_use_pty

- name: Ensure use_pty is enabled in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults.*\buse_pty\b.*$
    line: Defaults use_pty
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  when: '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_add_use_pty

Rule   Ensure Sudo Logfile Exists - sudo logfile   [ref]

A custom log sudo file can be configured with the 'logfile' tag. This rule configures a sudo custom logfile at the default location suggested by CIS, which uses /var/log/sudo.log.
Rationale:
A sudo log file simplifies auditing of sudo commands.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_custom_logfile
Identifiers and References

References:  Req-10.2.5, 5.3.3, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'sudo' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_sudo_logfile='/var/log/sudo.log'


if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults[\s]*\blogfile\s*=\s*("(?:\\"|\\\\|[^"\\\n])*"\B|[^"](?:(?:\\,|\\"|\\ |\\\\|[^", \\\n])*)\b)\b.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option logfile
        echo "Defaults logfile=${var_sudo_logfile}" >> /etc/sudoers
    else
        # sudoers file defines Option logfile, remediate if appropriate value is not set
        if ! grep -P "^[\s]*Defaults.*\blogfile=${var_sudo_logfile}\b.*$" /etc/sudoers; then
            
            escaped_variable=${var_sudo_logfile//$'/'/$'\/'}
            sed -Ei "s/(^[\s]*Defaults.*\blogfile=)[-]?.+(\b.*$)/\1$escaped_variable\2/" /etc/sudoers
        fi
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_custom_logfile
- name: XCCDF Value var_sudo_logfile # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_sudo_logfile: !!str /var/log/sudo.log
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure logfile is enabled with the appropriate value in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults\s(.*)\blogfile=[-]?.+\b(.*)$
    line: Defaults \1logfile={{ var_sudo_logfile }}\2
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
    backrefs: true
  register: edit_sudoers_logfile_option
  when: '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_custom_logfile

- name: Enable logfile option with appropriate value in /etc/sudoers
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    line: Defaults logfile={{ var_sudo_logfile }}
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  when:
  - '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - edit_sudoers_logfile_option is defined and not edit_sudoers_logfile_option.changed
  tags:
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - low_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_custom_logfile

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo !authenticate   [ref]

The sudo !authenticate option, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that the !authenticate option does not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_remove_no_authenticate
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158, 5.3.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "!authenticate" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

- name: Remove lines containing !authenticate from sudoers files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_remove_no_authenticate

Rule   Ensure Users Re-Authenticate for Privilege Escalation - sudo   [ref]

The sudo NOPASSWD and !authenticate option, when specified, allows a user to execute commands using sudo without having to authenticate. This should be disabled by making sure that NOPASSWD and/or !authenticate do not exist in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/."
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_require_authentication
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-002038, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-11, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, 5.3.4, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "NOPASSWD" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

for f in /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.d/* ; do
  if [ ! -e "$f" ] ; then
    continue
  fi
  matching_list=$(grep -P '^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$' $f | uniq )
  if ! test -z "$matching_list"; then
    while IFS= read -r entry; do
      # comment out "!authenticate" matches to preserve user data
      sed -i "s/^${entry}$/# &/g" $f
    done <<< "$matching_list"

    /usr/sbin/visudo -cf $f &> /dev/null || echo "Fail to validate $f with visudo"
  fi
done

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

- name: Remove lines containing NOPASSWD from sudoers files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+NOPASSWD[\s]*\:.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

- name: Find /etc/sudoers.d/ files
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/sudoers.d/
  register: sudoers
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

- name: Remove lines containing !authenticate from sudoers files
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    regexp: (^(?!#).*[\s]+\!authenticate.*$)
    replace: '# \g<1>'
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  with_items:
  - path: /etc/sudoers
  - '{{ sudoers.files }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_authentication

Rule   Require Re-Authentication When Using the sudo Command   [ref]

The sudo timestamp_timeout tag sets the amount of time sudo password prompt waits. The default timestamp_timeout value is 5 minutes. The timestamp_timeout should be configured by making sure that the timestamp_timeout tag exists in /etc/sudoers configuration file or any sudo configuration snippets in /etc/sudoers.d/. If the value is set to an integer less than 0, the user's time stamp will not expire and the user will not have to re-authenticate for privileged actions until the user's session is terminated.
Rationale:
Without re-authentication, users may access resources or perform tasks for which they do not have authorization.

When operating systems provide the capability to escalate a functional capability, it is critical that the user re-authenticate.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_sudo_require_reauthentication
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-002038, IA-11, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00156, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00157, SRG-OS-000373-GPOS-00158, 5.3.6, 2.2.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'sudo' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_sudo_timestamp_timeout='15'


if grep -Px '^[\s]*Defaults.*timestamp_timeout[\s]*=.*' /etc/sudoers.d/*; then
    find /etc/sudoers.d/ -type f -exec sed -Ei "/^[[:blank:]]*Defaults.*timestamp_timeout[[:blank:]]*=.*/d" {} \;
fi

if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
    cp /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.bak
    if ! grep -P '^[\s]*Defaults.*timestamp_timeout[\s]*=[\s]*[-]?\w+.*$' /etc/sudoers; then
        # sudoers file doesn't define Option timestamp_timeout
        echo "Defaults timestamp_timeout=${var_sudo_timestamp_timeout}" >> /etc/sudoers
    else
        # sudoers file defines Option timestamp_timeout, remediate wrong values if present
        if grep -qP "^[\s]*Defaults\s.*\btimestamp_timeout[\s]*=[\s]*(?!${var_sudo_timestamp_timeout}\b)[-]?\w+\b.*$" /etc/sudoers; then
            sed -Ei "s/(^[[:blank:]]*Defaults.*timestamp_timeout[[:blank:]]*=)[[:blank:]]*[-]?\w+(.*$)/\1${var_sudo_timestamp_timeout}\2/" /etc/sudoers
        fi
    fi
    
    # Check validity of sudoers and cleanup bak
    if /usr/sbin/visudo -qcf /etc/sudoers; then
        rm -f /etc/sudoers.bak
    else
        echo "Fail to validate remediated /etc/sudoers, reverting to original file."
        mv /etc/sudoers.bak /etc/sudoers
        false
    fi
else
    echo "Skipping remediation, /etc/sudoers failed to validate"
    false
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_reauthentication
- name: XCCDF Value var_sudo_timestamp_timeout # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_sudo_timestamp_timeout: !!str 15
  tags:
    - always

- name: Require Re-Authentication When Using the sudo Command - Find /etc/sudoers.d/*
    files containing 'Defaults timestamp_timeout'
  ansible.builtin.find:
    path: /etc/sudoers.d
    patterns: '*'
    contains: ^[\s]*Defaults\s.*\btimestamp_timeout[\s]*=.*
  register: sudoers_d_defaults_timestamp_timeout
  when: '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_reauthentication

- name: Require Re-Authentication When Using the sudo Command - Remove 'Defaults timestamp_timeout'
    from /etc/sudoers.d/* files
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults\s.*\btimestamp_timeout[\s]*=.*
    state: absent
  with_items: '{{ sudoers_d_defaults_timestamp_timeout.files }}'
  when: '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_reauthentication

- name: Require Re-Authentication When Using the sudo Command - Ensure timestamp_timeout
    has the appropriate value in /etc/sudoers
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults\s(.*)\btimestamp_timeout[\s]*=[\s]*[-]?\w+\b(.*)$
    line: Defaults \1timestamp_timeout={{ var_sudo_timestamp_timeout }}\2
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
    backrefs: true
  register: edit_sudoers_timestamp_timeout_option
  when: '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_reauthentication

- name: Require Re-Authentication When Using the sudo Command - Enable timestamp_timeout
    option with correct value in /etc/sudoers
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    line: Defaults timestamp_timeout={{ var_sudo_timestamp_timeout }}
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  when:
  - '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - |
    edit_sudoers_timestamp_timeout_option is defined and not edit_sudoers_timestamp_timeout_option.changed
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_reauthentication

- name: Require Re-Authentication When Using the sudo Command - Remove timestamp_timeout
    wrong values in /etc/sudoers
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/sudoers
    regexp: ^[\s]*Defaults\s.*\btimestamp_timeout[\s]*=[\s]*(?!{{ var_sudo_timestamp_timeout
      }}\b)[-]?\w+\b.*$
    state: absent
    validate: /usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s
  when: '"sudo" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-IA-11
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - sudo_require_reauthentication
Group   Account and Access Control   Group contains 15 groups and 63 rules
[ref]   In traditional Unix security, if an attacker gains shell access to a certain login account, they can perform any action or access any file to which that account has access. Therefore, making it more difficult for unauthorized people to gain shell access to accounts, particularly to privileged accounts, is a necessary part of securing a system. This section introduces mechanisms for restricting access to accounts under Ubuntu 22.04.
Group   Warning Banners for System Accesses   Group contains 1 group and 14 rules
[ref]   Each system should expose as little information about itself as possible.

System banners, which are typically displayed just before a login prompt, give out information about the service or the host's operating system. This might include the distribution name and the system kernel version, and the particular version of a network service. This information can assist intruders in gaining access to the system as it can reveal whether the system is running vulnerable software. Most network services can be configured to limit what information is displayed.

Many organizations implement security policies that require a system banner provide notice of the system's ownership, provide warning to unauthorized users, and remind authorized users of their consent to monitoring.
Group   Implement a GUI Warning Banner   Group contains 2 rules

Rule   Enable GNOME3 Login Warning Banner   [ref]

In the default graphical environment, displaying a login warning banner in the GNOME Display Manager's login screen can be enabled on the login screen by setting banner-message-enable to true.

To enable, add or edit banner-message-enable to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings. For example:
[org/gnome/login-screen]
banner-message-enable=true
Once the setting has been added, add a lock to /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock to prevent user modification. For example:
/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable
After the settings have been set, run dconf update. The banner text must also be set.
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

For U.S. Government systems, system use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_dconf_gnome_banner_enabled
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.9, CCI-000048, CCI-000050, CCI-001384, CCI-001385, CCI-001386, CCI-001387, CCI-001388, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, AC-8(a), AC-8(b), AC-8(c), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000023-GPOS-00006, SRG-OS-000228-GPOS-00088, 1.8.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'gdm3' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
# If files contain ibus or distro, ignore them.
# The assignment assumes that individual filenames don't contain :
readarray -t SETTINGSFILES < <(grep -r "\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
                                | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|gdm.d' | cut -d":" -f1)
DCONFFILE="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/00-security-settings"
DBDIR="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d"

mkdir -p "${DBDIR}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [ "${#SETTINGSFILES[@]}" -ne 0 ]
then
    if grep -q "^\\s*banner-message-enable\\s*=" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    then
        
        sed -Ei "s/(^\s*)banner-message-enable(\s*=)/#\1banner-message-enable\2/g" "${SETTINGSFILES[@]}"
    fi
fi

[ ! -z "${DCONFFILE}" ] && echo "" >> "${DCONFFILE}"
if ! grep -q "\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
    printf '%s\n' "[org/gnome/login-screen]" >> ${DCONFFILE}
fi

escaped_value="$(sed -e 's/\\/\\\\/g' <<< "true")"
if grep -q "^\\s*banner-message-enable\\s*=" "${DCONFFILE}"
then
        sed -i "s/\\s*banner-message-enable\\s*=\\s*.*/banner-message-enable=${escaped_value}/g" "${DCONFFILE}"
    else
        sed -i "\\|\\[org/gnome/login-screen\\]|a\\banner-message-enable=${escaped_value}" "${DCONFFILE}"
fi

dconf update
# Check for setting in any of the DConf db directories
LOCKFILES=$(grep -r "^/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable$" "/etc/dconf/db/" \
            | grep -v 'distro\|ibus\|gdm.d' | grep ":" | cut -d":" -f1)
LOCKSFOLDER="/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks"

mkdir -p "${LOCKSFOLDER}"

# Comment out the configurations in databases different from the target one
if [[ ! -z "${LOCKFILES}" ]]
then
    sed -i -E "s|^/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable$|#&|" "${LOCKFILES[@]}"
fi

if ! grep -qr "^/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable$" /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/
then
    echo "/org/gnome/login-screen/banner-message-enable" >> "/etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/locks/00-security-settings-lock"
fi

dconf update

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Modify the System Login Banner   [ref]

To configure the system login banner edit /etc/issue. Replace the default text with a message compliant with the local site policy or a legal disclaimer. The DoD required text is either:

You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests -- not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details.


OR:

I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_banner_etc_issue
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.9, CCI-000048, CCI-000050, CCI-001384, CCI-001385, CCI-001386, CCI-001387, CCI-001388, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, AC-8(a), AC-8(c), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000023-GPOS-00006, SRG-OS-000228-GPOS-00088, 1.7.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

login_banner_text='^Authorized[\s\n]+uses[\s\n]+only\.[\s\n]+All[\s\n]+activity[\s\n]+may[\s\n]+be[\s\n]+monitored[\s\n]+and[\s\n]+reported\.$'


# Multiple regexes transform the banner regex into a usable banner
# 0 - Remove anchors around the banner text
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/^\^\(.*\)\$$/\1/g')
# 1 - Keep only the first banners if there are multiple
#    (dod_banners contains the long and short banner)
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/^(\(.*\.\)|.*)$/\1/g')
# 2 - Add spaces ' '. (Transforms regex for "space or newline" into a " ")
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/\[\\s\\n\]+/ /g')
# 3 - Adds newlines. (Transforms "(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\n)+)" into "\n")
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\\\n)+)/\n/g')
# 4 - Remove any leftover backslash. (From any parethesis in the banner, for example).
login_banner_text=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | sed 's/\\//g')
formatted=$(echo "$login_banner_text" | fold -sw 80)
cat <<EOF >/etc/issue
$formatted
EOF

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Modify the System Login Banner for Remote Connections   [ref]

To configure the system login banner edit /etc/issue.net. Replace the default text with a message compliant with the local site policy or a legal disclaimer. The DoD required text is either:

You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests -- not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details.


OR:

I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_banner_etc_issue_net
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000048, CCI-001384, CCI-001385, CCI-001386, CCI-001387, CCI-001388, SRG-OS-000023-GPOS-00006, SRG-OS-000228-GPOS-00088, 1.7.3


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

remote_login_banner_text='^Authorized[\s\n]+uses[\s\n]+only\.[\s\n]+All[\s\n]+activity[\s\n]+may[\s\n]+be[\s\n]+monitored[\s\n]+and[\s\n]+reported\.$'


# Multiple regexes transform the banner regex into a usable banner
# 0 - Remove anchors around the banner text
remote_login_banner_text=$(echo "$remote_login_banner_text" | sed 's/^\^\(.*\)\$$/\1/g')
# 1 - Keep only the first banners if there are multiple
#    (dod_banners contains the long and short banner)
remote_login_banner_text=$(echo "$remote_login_banner_text" | sed 's/^(\(.*\.\)|.*)$/\1/g')
# 2 - Add spaces ' '. (Transforms regex for "space or newline" into a " ")
remote_login_banner_text=$(echo "$remote_login_banner_text" | sed 's/\[\\s\\n\]+/ /g')
# 3 - Adds newlines. (Transforms "(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\n)+)" into "\n")
remote_login_banner_text=$(echo "$remote_login_banner_text" | sed 's/(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\\\n)+)/\n/g')
# 4 - Remove any leftover backslash. (From any parethesis in the banner, for example).
remote_login_banner_text=$(echo "$remote_login_banner_text" | sed 's/\\//g')
formatted=$(echo "$remote_login_banner_text" | fold -sw 80)

cat <<EOF >/etc/issue.net
$formatted
EOF

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:unknown
- name: XCCDF Value remote_login_banner_text # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    remote_login_banner_text: !!str ^Authorized[\s\n]+uses[\s\n]+only\.[\s\n]+All[\s\n]+activity[\s\n]+may[\s\n]+be[\s\n]+monitored[\s\n]+and[\s\n]+reported\.$
  tags:
    - always

- name: Modify the System Login Banner for Remote Connections - ensure correct banner
  copy:
    dest: /etc/issue.net
    content: '{{ remote_login_banner_text | regex_replace("^\^(.*)\$$", "\1") | regex_replace("^\((.*\.)\|.*\)$",
      "\1") | regex_replace("\[\\s\\n\]\+"," ") | regex_replace("\(\?:\[\\n\]\+\|\(\?:\\\\n\)\+\)",
      "\n") | regex_replace("\\", "") | wordwrap() }}'
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - banner_etc_issue_net
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - unknown_strategy

Rule   Modify the System Message of the Day Banner   [ref]

To configure the system message banner edit /etc/motd. Replace the default text with a message compliant with the local site policy or a legal disclaimer. The DoD required text is either:

You are accessing a U.S. Government (USG) Information System (IS) that is provided for USG-authorized use only. By using this IS (which includes any device attached to this IS), you consent to the following conditions:
-The USG routinely intercepts and monitors communications on this IS for purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, COMSEC monitoring, network operations and defense, personnel misconduct (PM), law enforcement (LE), and counterintelligence (CI) investigations.
-At any time, the USG may inspect and seize data stored on this IS.
-Communications using, or data stored on, this IS are not private, are subject to routine monitoring, interception, and search, and may be disclosed or used for any USG-authorized purpose.
-This IS includes security measures (e.g., authentication and access controls) to protect USG interests -- not for your personal benefit or privacy.
-Notwithstanding the above, using this IS does not constitute consent to PM, LE or CI investigative searching or monitoring of the content of privileged communications, or work product, related to personal representation or services by attorneys, psychotherapists, or clergy, and their assistants. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details.


OR:

I've read & consent to terms in IS user agreem't.
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.

System use notifications are required only for access via login interfaces with human users and are not required when such human interfaces do not exist.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_banner_etc_motd
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.1


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

motd_banner_text='^Authorized[\s\n]+uses[\s\n]+only\.[\s\n]+All[\s\n]+activity[\s\n]+may[\s\n]+be[\s\n]+monitored[\s\n]+and[\s\n]+reported\.$'


# Multiple regexes transform the banner regex into a usable banner
# 0 - Remove anchors around the banner text
motd_banner_text=$(echo "$motd_banner_text" | sed 's/^\^\(.*\)\$$/\1/g')
# 1 - Keep only the first banners if there are multiple
#    (dod_banners contains the long and short banner)
motd_banner_text=$(echo "$motd_banner_text" | sed 's/^(\(.*\.\)|.*)$/\1/g')
# 2 - Add spaces ' '. (Transforms regex for "space or newline" into a " ")
motd_banner_text=$(echo "$motd_banner_text" | sed 's/\[\\s\\n\]+/ /g')
# 3 - Adds newlines. (Transforms "(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\n)+)" into "\n")
motd_banner_text=$(echo "$motd_banner_text" | sed 's/(?:\[\\n\]+|(?:\\\\n)+)/\n/g')
# 4 - Remove any leftover backslash. (From any parethesis in the banner, for example).
motd_banner_text=$(echo "$motd_banner_text" | sed 's/\\//g')
formatted=$(echo "$motd_banner_text" | fold -sw 80)

cat <<EOF >/etc/motd
$formatted
EOF

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Verify Group Ownership of System Login Banner   [ref]

To properly set the group owner of /etc/issue, run the command:
$ sudo chgrp root /etc/issue
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper group ownership will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_groupowner_etc_issue
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
chgrp 0 /etc/issue

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/issue
  stat:
    path: /etc/issue
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_groupowner_etc_issue
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/issue
  file:
    path: /etc/issue
    group: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_groupowner_etc_issue
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify Group Ownership of System Login Banner for Remote Connections   [ref]

To properly set the group owner of /etc/issue.net, run the command:
$ sudo chgrp root /etc/issue.net
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper group ownership will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_groupowner_etc_issue_net
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.6, 1.2.8


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
chgrp 0 /etc/issue.net

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/issue.net
  stat:
    path: /etc/issue.net
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.8
  - configure_strategy
  - file_groupowner_etc_issue_net
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/issue.net
  file:
    path: /etc/issue.net
    group: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.8
  - configure_strategy
  - file_groupowner_etc_issue_net
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify Group Ownership of Message of the Day Banner   [ref]

To properly set the group owner of /etc/motd, run the command:
$ sudo chgrp root /etc/motd
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper group ownership will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_groupowner_etc_motd
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
chgrp 0 /etc/motd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/motd
  stat:
    path: /etc/motd
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_groupowner_etc_motd
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure group owner 0 on /etc/motd
  file:
    path: /etc/motd
    group: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_groupowner_etc_motd
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify ownership of System Login Banner   [ref]

To properly set the owner of /etc/issue, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /etc/issue 
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper ownership will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_owner_etc_issue
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
chown 0 /etc/issue

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/issue
  stat:
    path: /etc/issue
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_owner_etc_issue
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/issue
  file:
    path: /etc/issue
    owner: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_owner_etc_issue
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify ownership of System Login Banner for Remote Connections   [ref]

To properly set the owner of /etc/issue.net, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /etc/issue.net 
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper ownership will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_owner_etc_issue_net
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.6, 1.2.8


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
chown 0 /etc/issue.net

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/issue.net
  stat:
    path: /etc/issue.net
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.8
  - configure_strategy
  - file_owner_etc_issue_net
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/issue.net
  file:
    path: /etc/issue.net
    owner: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.8
  - configure_strategy
  - file_owner_etc_issue_net
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify ownership of Message of the Day Banner   [ref]

To properly set the owner of /etc/motd, run the command:
$ sudo chown root /etc/motd 
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper ownership will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_owner_etc_motd
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
chown 0 /etc/motd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/motd
  stat:
    path: /etc/motd
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_owner_etc_motd
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure owner 0 on /etc/motd
  file:
    path: /etc/motd
    owner: '0'
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_owner_etc_motd
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify permissions on System Login Banner   [ref]

To properly set the permissions of /etc/issue, run the command:
$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/issue
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper permissions will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_etc_issue
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.5


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure





chmod u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt /etc/issue

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/issue
  stat:
    path: /etc/issue
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_etc_issue
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure permission u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt on /etc/issue
  file:
    path: /etc/issue
    mode: u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_etc_issue
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify permissions on System Login Banner for Remote Connections   [ref]

To properly set the permissions of /etc/issue.net, run the command:
$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/issue.net
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper permissions will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_etc_issue_net
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.6, 1.2.8


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure





chmod u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt /etc/issue.net

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/issue.net
  stat:
    path: /etc/issue.net
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.8
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_etc_issue_net
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure permission u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt on /etc/issue.net
  file:
    path: /etc/issue.net
    mode: u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-1.2.8
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_etc_issue_net
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Verify permissions on Message of the Day Banner   [ref]

To properly set the permissions of /etc/motd, run the command:
$ sudo chmod 0644 /etc/motd
Rationale:
Display of a standardized and approved use notification before granting access to the operating system ensures privacy and security notification verbiage used is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance.
Proper permissions will ensure that only root user can modify the banner.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_etc_motd
Identifiers and References

References:  1.7.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure





chmod u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt /etc/motd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Test for existence /etc/motd
  stat:
    path: /etc/motd
  register: file_exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_etc_motd
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Ensure permission u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt on /etc/motd
  file:
    path: /etc/motd
    mode: u-xs,g-xws,o-xwt
  when: file_exists.stat is defined and file_exists.stat.exists
  tags:
  - configure_strategy
  - file_permissions_etc_motd
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
Group   Protect Accounts by Configuring PAM   Group contains 4 groups and 12 rules
[ref]   PAM, or Pluggable Authentication Modules, is a system which implements modular authentication for Linux programs. PAM provides a flexible and configurable architecture for authentication, and it should be configured to minimize exposure to unnecessary risk. This section contains guidance on how to accomplish that.

PAM is implemented as a set of shared objects which are loaded and invoked whenever an application wishes to authenticate a user. Typically, the application must be running as root in order to take advantage of PAM, because PAM's modules often need to be able to access sensitive stores of account information, such as /etc/shadow. Traditional privileged network listeners (e.g. sshd) or SUID programs (e.g. sudo) already meet this requirement. An SUID root application, userhelper, is provided so that programs which are not SUID or privileged themselves can still take advantage of PAM.

PAM looks in the directory /etc/pam.d for application-specific configuration information. For instance, if the program login attempts to authenticate a user, then PAM's libraries follow the instructions in the file /etc/pam.d/login to determine what actions should be taken.

One very important file in /etc/pam.d is /etc/pam.d/system-auth. This file, which is included by many other PAM configuration files, defines 'default' system authentication measures. Modifying this file is a good way to make far-reaching authentication changes, for instance when implementing a centralized authentication service.
Warning:  Be careful when making changes to PAM's configuration files. The syntax for these files is complex, and modifications can have unexpected consequences. The default configurations shipped with applications should be sufficient for most users.
Warning:  Running authconfig or system-config-authentication will re-write the PAM configuration files, destroying any manually made changes and replacing them with a series of system defaults. One reference to the configuration file syntax can be found at https://fossies.org/linux/Linux-PAM-docs/doc/sag/Linux-PAM_SAG.pdf.
Group   Set Lockouts for Failed Password Attempts   Group contains 4 rules
[ref]   The pam_faillock PAM module provides the capability to lock out user accounts after a number of failed login attempts. Its documentation is available in /usr/share/doc/pam-VERSION/txts/README.pam_faillock.

Warning:  Locking out user accounts presents the risk of a denial-of-service attack. The lockout policy must weigh whether the risk of such a denial-of-service attack outweighs the benefits of thwarting password guessing attacks.

Rule   Limit Password Reuse   [ref]

Do not allow users to reuse recent passwords. This can be accomplished by using the remember option for the pam_unix or pam_pwhistory PAM modules.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report.
Warning:  Newer versions of authselect contain an authselect feature to easily and properly enable pam_pwhistory.so module. If this feature is not yet available in your system, an authselect custom profile must be used to avoid integrity issues in PAM files.
Rationale:
Preventing re-use of previous passwords helps ensure that a compromised password is not re-used by a user.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.1.1, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.5.8, CCI-000200, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(f), IA-5(1)(e), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.5, SRG-OS-000077-GPOS-00045, 5.4.3, BP28(R31), 8.3.7


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_unix_remember='5'


if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ] ; then
    valueRegex="$var_password_pam_unix_remember" defaultValue="$var_password_pam_unix_remember"
    # non-empty values need to be preceded by an equals sign
    [ -n "${valueRegex}" ] && valueRegex="=${valueRegex}"
    # add an equals sign to non-empty values
    [ -n "${defaultValue}" ] && defaultValue="=${defaultValue}"

    # fix 'type' if it's wrong
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*(?"'!'"password\\s)[[:alnum:]]+\\s+[[:alnum:]]+\\s+pam_unix.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*)[[:alnum:]]+(\\s+[[:alnum:]]+\\s+pam_unix.so)/\\1password\\2/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    fi

    # fix 'control' if it's wrong
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+(?"'!'"\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\])[[:alnum:]]+\\s+pam_unix.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+)[[:alnum:]]+(\\s+pam_unix.so)/\\1\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\]\\2/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    fi

    # fix the value for 'option' if one exists but does not match 'valueRegex'
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\]\\s+pam_unix.so(\\s.+)?\\s+remember(?"'!'"${valueRegex}(\\s|\$))" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\]\\s+pam_unix.so(\\s.+)?\\s)remember=[^[:space:]]*/\\1remember${defaultValue}/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"

    # add 'option=default' if option is not set
    elif grep -q -E "^\\s*password\\s+\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\]\\s+pam_unix.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" &&
            grep    -E "^\\s*password\\s+\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\]\\s+pam_unix.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" | grep -q -E -v "\\sremember(=|\\s|\$)" ; then

        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\]\\s+pam_unix.so[^\\n]*)/\\1 remember${defaultValue}/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    # add a new entry if none exists
    elif ! grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+\[success=[[:alnum:]].*\]\\s+pam_unix.so(\\s.+)?\\s+remember${valueRegex}(\\s|\$)" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        echo "password \[success=[[:alnum:]].*\] pam_unix.so remember${defaultValue}" >> "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/common-password doesn't exist" >&2
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:configure
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_unix_remember # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_unix_remember: !!str 5
  tags:
    - always

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Check if the required PAM module option is present
    in /etc/pam.d/common-password
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/pam.d/common-password
    regexp: ^\s*password\s+\[success=[A-Za-z0-9].*\]\s+pam_unix.so\s*.*\sremember\b
    state: absent
  check_mode: true
  changed_when: false
  register: result_pam_module_remember_option_present
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the "remember" PAM option for "pam_unix.so"
    is included in /etc/pam.d/common-password
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/pam.d/common-password
    backrefs: true
    regexp: ^(\s*password\s+\[success=[A-Za-z0-9].*\]\s+pam_unix.so.*)
    line: \1 remember={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }}
    state: present
  register: result_pam_remember_add
  when:
  - '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_module_remember_option_present.found == 0
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

- name: Limit Password Reuse - Ensure the required value for "remember" PAM option
    from "pam_unix.so" in /etc/pam.d/common-password
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/pam.d/common-password
    backrefs: true
    regexp: ^(\s*password\s+\[success=[A-Za-z0-9].*\]\s+pam_unix.so\s+.*)(remember)=[0-9a-zA-Z]+\s*(.*)
    line: \1\2={{ var_password_pam_unix_remember }} \3
  register: result_pam_remember_edit
  when:
  - '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - result_pam_module_remember_option_present.found > 0
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.5.8
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(e)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.7
  - accounts_password_pam_unix_remember
  - configure_strategy
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed

Rule   Lock Accounts After Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out accounts after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. Ensure that the file /etc/security/faillock.conf contains the following entry: deny = <count> Where count should be less than or equal to 4 and greater than 0.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts, the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, also known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5.5.3, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, Req-8.1.6, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, 5.4.2, BP28(R31), 8.3.4


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny='4'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature with-faillock

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
pam_file="/etc/pam.d/common-auth"
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    # insert at the top
    sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^# here are the per-package modules/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth' "$pam_file"
fi
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+\[default=die\]\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$' "$pam_file" ; then

    num_lines=$(sed -n 's/^\s*auth.*success=\([1-9]\).*pam_unix\.so.*/\1/p' "$pam_file")
    if [ ! -z "$num_lines" ]; then

        # Add pam_faillock (authfail) module below pam_unix, skipping N-1 lines, where N is
        # the number of jumps in the pam_unix success=N statement. Ignore commented and empty lines.

        append_position=$(cat -n "${pam_file}" \
                          | grep -P "^\s+\d+\s+auth\s+.*$" \
                          | grep -w "pam_unix.so" -A $(( num_lines - 1 )) \
                          | tail -n 1 | cut -f 1 | tr -d ' '
                         )
        sed -i --follow-symlinks ''${append_position}'a auth        [default=die]      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*pam_unix\.so.*/a auth        [default=die]      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
    fi
fi
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+sufficient\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authsucc.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/a auth        sufficient      pam_faillock.so authsucc' "$pam_file"
fi

pam_file="/etc/pam.d/common-account"
if ! grep -qE '^\s*account\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    echo 'account   required     pam_faillock.so' >> "$pam_file"
fi

fi

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/common-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*deny\s*="
    line="deny = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's|^\s*\(deny\s*=\s*\)\(\S\+\)|\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'|g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if [ -e "$pam_file" ] ; then
            PAM_FILE_PATH="$pam_file"
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                if ! authselect check; then
                echo "
                authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
                This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
                It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
                In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
                exit 1
                fi

                CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
                # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
                if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                    ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                    authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                    authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                        authselect enable-feature $feature;
                    done
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
                fi
                PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "$pam_file")
                PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
            
        if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s.*\bpam_faillock.so\s.*\bdeny\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bdeny\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
        else
            echo "$pam_file was not found" >&2
        fi
    done
else
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*deny' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ deny='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ deny='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"deny"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*\)\('"deny"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_deny"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set Interval For Counting Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

Utilizing pam_faillock.so, the fail_interval directive configures the system to lock out an account after a number of incorrect login attempts within a specified time period. Ensure that the file /etc/security/faillock.conf contains the following entry: fail_interval = <interval-in-seconds> where interval-in-seconds is 900 or greater.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_interval
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, 5.4.2, BP28(R31)


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval='900'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature with-faillock

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
pam_file="/etc/pam.d/common-auth"
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    # insert at the top
    sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^# here are the per-package modules/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth' "$pam_file"
fi
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+\[default=die\]\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$' "$pam_file" ; then

    num_lines=$(sed -n 's/^\s*auth.*success=\([1-9]\).*pam_unix\.so.*/\1/p' "$pam_file")
    if [ ! -z "$num_lines" ]; then

        # Add pam_faillock (authfail) module below pam_unix, skipping N-1 lines, where N is
        # the number of jumps in the pam_unix success=N statement. Ignore commented and empty lines.

        append_position=$(cat -n "${pam_file}" \
                          | grep -P "^\s+\d+\s+auth\s+.*$" \
                          | grep -w "pam_unix.so" -A $(( num_lines - 1 )) \
                          | tail -n 1 | cut -f 1 | tr -d ' '
                         )
        sed -i --follow-symlinks ''${append_position}'a auth        [default=die]      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*pam_unix\.so.*/a auth        [default=die]      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
    fi
fi
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+sufficient\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authsucc.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/a auth        sufficient      pam_faillock.so authsucc' "$pam_file"
fi

pam_file="/etc/pam.d/common-account"
if ! grep -qE '^\s*account\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    echo 'account   required     pam_faillock.so' >> "$pam_file"
fi

fi

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/common-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*fail_interval\s*="
    line="fail_interval = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's|^\s*\(fail_interval\s*=\s*\)\(\S\+\)|\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'|g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if [ -e "$pam_file" ] ; then
            PAM_FILE_PATH="$pam_file"
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                if ! authselect check; then
                echo "
                authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
                This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
                It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
                In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
                exit 1
                fi

                CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
                # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
                if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                    ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                    authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                    authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                        authselect enable-feature $feature;
                    done
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
                fi
                PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "$pam_file")
                PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
            
        if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s.*\bpam_faillock.so\s.*\bfail_interval\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bfail_interval\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
        else
            echo "$pam_file was not found" >&2
        fi
    done
else
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*fail_interval' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ fail_interval='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ fail_interval='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"fail_interval"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*\)\('"fail_interval"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_fail_interval"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Set Lockout Time for Failed Password Attempts   [ref]

This rule configures the system to lock out accounts during a specified time period after a number of incorrect login attempts using pam_faillock.so. Ensure that the file /etc/security/faillock.conf contains the following entry: unlock_time=<interval-in-seconds> where interval-in-seconds is 600 or greater. pam_faillock.so module requires multiple entries in pam files. These entries must be carefully defined to work as expected. In order to avoid any errors when manually editing these files, it is recommended to use the appropriate tools, such as authselect or authconfig, depending on the OS version. If unlock_time is set to 0, manual intervention by an administrator is required to unlock a user. This should be done using the faillock tool.
Warning:  If the system supports the new /etc/security/faillock.conf file but the pam_faillock.so parameters are defined directly in /etc/pam.d/system-auth and /etc/pam.d/password-auth, the remediation will migrate the unlock_time parameter to /etc/security/faillock.conf to ensure compatibility with authselect tool. The parameters deny and fail_interval, if used, also have to be migrated by their respective remediation.
Warning:  If the system relies on authselect tool to manage PAM settings, the remediation will also use authselect tool. However, if any manual modification was made in PAM files, the authselect integrity check will fail and the remediation will be aborted in order to preserve intentional changes. In this case, an informative message will be shown in the remediation report. If the system supports the /etc/security/faillock.conf file, the pam_faillock parameters should be defined in faillock.conf file.
Rationale:
By limiting the number of failed logon attempts the risk of unauthorized system access via user password guessing, otherwise known as brute-forcing, is reduced. Limits are imposed by locking the account.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5.5.3, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.8, CCI-000044, CCI-002236, CCI-002237, CCI-002238, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(b), PR.AC-7, FIA_AFL.1, Req-8.1.7, SRG-OS-000329-GPOS-00128, SRG-OS-000021-GPOS-00005, 5.4.2, BP28(R31), 8.3.4


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time='600'


if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
    if ! authselect check; then
echo "
authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
exit 1
fi
authselect enable-feature with-faillock

authselect apply-changes -b
else
    
pam_file="/etc/pam.d/common-auth"
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+preauth.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    # insert at the top
    sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^# here are the per-package modules/i auth        required      pam_faillock.so preauth' "$pam_file"
fi
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+\[default=die\]\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authfail.*$' "$pam_file" ; then

    num_lines=$(sed -n 's/^\s*auth.*success=\([1-9]\).*pam_unix\.so.*/\1/p' "$pam_file")
    if [ ! -z "$num_lines" ]; then

        # Add pam_faillock (authfail) module below pam_unix, skipping N-1 lines, where N is
        # the number of jumps in the pam_unix success=N statement. Ignore commented and empty lines.

        append_position=$(cat -n "${pam_file}" \
                          | grep -P "^\s+\d+\s+auth\s+.*$" \
                          | grep -w "pam_unix.so" -A $(( num_lines - 1 )) \
                          | tail -n 1 | cut -f 1 | tr -d ' '
                         )
        sed -i --follow-symlinks ''${append_position}'a auth        [default=die]      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*pam_unix\.so.*/a auth        [default=die]      pam_faillock.so authfail' "$pam_file"
    fi
fi
if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth\s+sufficient\s+pam_faillock\.so\s+authsucc.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/a auth        sufficient      pam_faillock.so authsucc' "$pam_file"
fi

pam_file="/etc/pam.d/common-account"
if ! grep -qE '^\s*account\s+required\s+pam_faillock\.so.*$' "$pam_file" ; then
    echo 'account   required     pam_faillock.so' >> "$pam_file"
fi

fi

AUTH_FILES=("/etc/pam.d/common-auth" "/etc/pam.d/password-auth")

FAILLOCK_CONF="/etc/security/faillock.conf"
if [ -f $FAILLOCK_CONF ]; then
    regex="^\s*unlock_time\s*="
    line="unlock_time = $var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"
    if ! grep -q $regex $FAILLOCK_CONF; then
        echo $line >> $FAILLOCK_CONF
    else
        sed -i --follow-symlinks 's|^\s*\(unlock_time\s*=\s*\)\(\S\+\)|\1'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'|g' $FAILLOCK_CONF
    fi
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if [ -e "$pam_file" ] ; then
            PAM_FILE_PATH="$pam_file"
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                if ! authselect check; then
                echo "
                authselect integrity check failed. Remediation aborted!
                This remediation could not be applied because an authselect profile was not selected or the selected profile is not intact.
                It is not recommended to manually edit the PAM files when authselect tool is available.
                In cases where the default authselect profile does not cover a specific demand, a custom authselect profile is recommended."
                exit 1
                fi

                CURRENT_PROFILE=$(authselect current -r | awk '{ print $1 }')
                # If not already in use, a custom profile is created preserving the enabled features.
                if [[ ! $CURRENT_PROFILE == custom/* ]]; then
                    ENABLED_FEATURES=$(authselect current | tail -n+3 | awk '{ print $2 }')
                    authselect create-profile hardening -b $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    CURRENT_PROFILE="custom/hardening"
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=before-hardening-custom-profile
                    authselect select $CURRENT_PROFILE
                    for feature in $ENABLED_FEATURES; do
                        authselect enable-feature $feature;
                    done
                    
                    authselect apply-changes -b --backup=after-hardening-custom-profile
                fi
                PAM_FILE_NAME=$(basename "$pam_file")
                PAM_FILE_PATH="/etc/authselect/$CURRENT_PROFILE/$PAM_FILE_NAME"

                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
            
        if grep -qP '^\s*auth\s.*\bpam_faillock.so\s.*\bunlock_time\b' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"; then
            sed -i -E --follow-symlinks 's/(.*auth.*pam_faillock.so.*)\bunlock_time\b=?[[:alnum:]]*(.*)/\1\2/g' "$PAM_FILE_PATH"
        fi
            if [ -f /usr/bin/authselect ]; then
                
                authselect apply-changes -b
            fi
        else
            echo "$pam_file was not found" >&2
        fi
    done
else
    for pam_file in "${AUTH_FILES[@]}"
    do
        if ! grep -qE '^\s*auth.*pam_faillock\.so (preauth|authfail).*unlock_time' "$pam_file"; then
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*/ s/$/ unlock_time='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks '/^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*/ s/$/ unlock_time='"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'/' "$pam_file"
        else
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*preauth.*silent.*\)\('"unlock_time"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'\3/' "$pam_file"
            sed -i --follow-symlinks 's/\(^auth.*required.*pam_faillock\.so.*authfail.*\)\('"unlock_time"'=\)[0-9]\+\(.*\)/\1\2'"$var_accounts_passwords_pam_faillock_unlock_time"'\3/' "$pam_file"
        fi
    done
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Set Password Quality Requirements   Group contains 1 group and 7 rules
[ref]   The default pam_pwquality PAM module provides strength checking for passwords. It performs a number of checks, such as making sure passwords are not similar to dictionary words, are of at least a certain length, are not the previous password reversed, and are not simply a change of case from the previous password. It can also require passwords to be in certain character classes. The pam_pwquality module is the preferred way of configuring password requirements.

The man pages pam_pwquality(8) provide information on the capabilities and configuration of each.
Group   Set Password Quality Requirements with pam_pwquality   Group contains 7 rules
[ref]   The pam_pwquality PAM module can be configured to meet requirements for a variety of policies.

For example, to configure pam_pwquality to require at least one uppercase character, lowercase character, digit, and other (special) character, make sure that pam_pwquality exists in /etc/pam.d/system-auth:
password    requisite     pam_pwquality.so try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 authtok_type=
If no such line exists, add one as the first line of the password section in /etc/pam.d/system-auth. Next, modify the settings in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to match the following:
difok = 4
minlen = 14
dcredit = -1
ucredit = -1
lcredit = -1
ocredit = -1
maxrepeat = 3
The arguments can be modified to ensure compliance with your organization's security policy. Discussion of each parameter follows.

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's dcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of digits in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many digits. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each digit. Modify the dcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a digit in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring digits makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_dcredit
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000194, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000071-GPOS-00039, 5.4.1, BP28(R31), 8.3.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_dcredit='-1'






# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^dcredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_dcredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^dcredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^dcredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_dcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_dcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Digit Characters - Ensure
    PAM variable dcredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*dcredit
    line: dcredit = {{ var_password_pam_dcredit }}
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - accounts_password_pam_dcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's lcredit parameter controls requirements for usage of lowercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many lowercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each lowercase character. Modify the lcredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of a lowercase character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.
Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possble combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of lowercase characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_lcredit
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000193, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000070-GPOS-00038, 5.4.1, BP28(R31), 8.3.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_lcredit='-1'






# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^lcredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_lcredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^lcredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^lcredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_lcredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_lcredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Lowercase Characters -
    Ensure PAM variable lcredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*lcredit
    line: lcredit = {{ var_password_pam_lcredit }}
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - accounts_password_pam_lcredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Different Categories   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's minclass parameter controls requirements for usage of different character classes, or types, of character that must exist in a password before it is considered valid. For example, setting this value to three (3) requires that any password must have characters from at least three different categories in order to be approved. The default value is zero (0), meaning there are no required classes. There are four categories available:
* Upper-case characters
* Lower-case characters
* Digits
* Special characters (for example, punctuation)
Modify the minclass setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf entry to require 4 differing categories of characters when changing passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.

Requiring a minimum number of character categories makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_minclass
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000195, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, SRG-OS-000072-GPOS-00040, 5.4.1, BP28(R68)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_minclass='4'






# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^minclass")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_minclass"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^minclass\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^minclass\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_minclass
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_minclass # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_minclass: !!str 4
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Different Categories -
    Ensure PAM variable minclass is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*minclass
    line: minclass = {{ var_password_pam_minclass }}
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_minclass
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's minlen parameter controls requirements for minimum characters required in a password. Add minlen=14 after pam_pwquality to set minimum password length requirements.
Rationale:
The shorter the password, the lower the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks. Password length is one factor of several that helps to determine strength and how long it takes to crack a password. Use of more characters in a password helps to exponentially increase the time and/or resources required to compromise the password.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_minlen
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.1.1, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000205, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000078-GPOS-00046, 5.4.1, BP28(R31), BP28(R68), 8.3.6


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_minlen='14'






# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^minlen")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_minlen"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^minlen\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^minlen\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - accounts_password_pam_minlen
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_minlen # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_minlen: !!str 14
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Length - Ensure PAM variable
    minlen is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*minlen
    line: minlen = {{ var_password_pam_minlen }}
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.6.2.1.1
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.3.6
  - accounts_password_pam_minlen
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ocredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of special (or "other") characters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many special characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each special character. Modify the ocredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to equal -1 to require use of a special character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised. Requiring a minimum number of special characters makes password guessing attacks more difficult by ensuring a larger search space.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ocredit
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-001619, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000266-GPOS-00101, 5.4.1, BP28(R31)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_ocredit='-1'






# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^ocredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_ocredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^ocredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^ocredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ocredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ocredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Special Characters - Ensure
    PAM variable ocredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ocredit
    line: ocredit = {{ var_password_pam_ocredit }}
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - accounts_password_pam_ocredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Authentication Retry Prompts Permitted Per-Session   [ref]

To configure the number of retry prompts that are permitted per-session: Edit the pam_pwquality.so statement in /etc/pam.d/common-password to show retry=3 , or a lower value if site policy is more restrictive. The DoD requirement is a maximum of 3 prompts per session.
Rationale:
Setting the password retry prompts that are permitted on a per-session basis to a low value requires some software, such as SSH, to re-connect. This can slow down and draw additional attention to some types of password-guessing attacks. Note that this is different from account lockout, which is provided by the pam_faillock module.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_retry
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 15, 16, 3, 5, 9, 5.5.3, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000192, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CM-6(a), AC-7(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.IP-1, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000069-GPOS-00037, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 5.4.1, BP28(R68)


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_retry='3'


if [ -e "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ] ; then
    valueRegex="$var_password_pam_retry" defaultValue="$var_password_pam_retry"
    # non-empty values need to be preceded by an equals sign
    [ -n "${valueRegex}" ] && valueRegex="=${valueRegex}"
    # add an equals sign to non-empty values
    [ -n "${defaultValue}" ] && defaultValue="=${defaultValue}"

    # fix 'type' if it's wrong
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*(?"'!'"password\\s)[[:alnum:]]+\\s+[[:alnum:]]+\\s+pam_pwquality.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*)[[:alnum:]]+(\\s+[[:alnum:]]+\\s+pam_pwquality.so)/\\1password\\2/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    fi

    # fix 'control' if it's wrong
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+(?"'!'"requisite)[[:alnum:]]+\\s+pam_pwquality.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+)[[:alnum:]]+(\\s+pam_pwquality.so)/\\1requisite\\2/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    fi

    # fix the value for 'option' if one exists but does not match 'valueRegex'
    if grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+requisite\\s+pam_pwquality.so(\\s.+)?\\s+retry(?"'!'"${valueRegex}(\\s|\$))" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+requisite\\s+pam_pwquality.so(\\s.+)?\\s)retry=[^[:space:]]*/\\1retry${defaultValue}/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"

    # add 'option=default' if option is not set
    elif grep -q -E "^\\s*password\\s+requisite\\s+pam_pwquality.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" &&
            grep    -E "^\\s*password\\s+requisite\\s+pam_pwquality.so" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" | grep -q -E -v "\\sretry(=|\\s|\$)" ; then

        sed --follow-symlinks -i -E -e "s/^(\\s*password\\s+requisite\\s+pam_pwquality.so[^\\n]*)/\\1 retry${defaultValue}/" "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    # add a new entry if none exists
    elif ! grep -q -P "^\\s*password\\s+requisite\\s+pam_pwquality.so(\\s.+)?\\s+retry${valueRegex}(\\s|\$)" < "/etc/pam.d/common-password" ; then
        echo "password requisite pam_pwquality.so retry${defaultValue}" >> "/etc/pam.d/common-password"
    fi
else
    echo "/etc/pam.d/common-password doesn't exist" >&2
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Rule   Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters   [ref]

The pam_pwquality module's ucredit= parameter controls requirements for usage of uppercase letters in a password. When set to a negative number, any password will be required to contain that many uppercase characters. When set to a positive number, pam_pwquality will grant +1 additional length credit for each uppercase character. Modify the ucredit setting in /etc/security/pwquality.conf to require the use of an uppercase character in passwords.
Rationale:
Use of a complex password helps to increase the time and resources required to compromise the password. Password complexity, or strength, is a measure of the effectiveness of a password in resisting attempts at guessing and brute-force attacks.

Password complexity is one factor of several that determines how long it takes to crack a password. The more complex the password, the greater the number of possible combinations that need to be tested before the password is compromised.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_pam_ucredit
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000192, CCI-000193, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0421, 0422, 0431, 0974, 1173, 1401, 1504, 1505, 1546, 1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, 1561, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(a), CM-6(a), IA-5(4), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, FMT_SMF_EXT.1, Req-8.2.3, SRG-OS-000069-GPOS-00037, SRG-OS-000070-GPOS-00038, 5.4.1, BP28(R31)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_pam_ucredit='-1'






# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^ucredit")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s = %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_pam_ucredit"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^ucredit\\>" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^ucredit\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/security/pwquality.conf" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/security/pwquality.conf"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_password_pam_ucredit # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_password_pam_ucredit: !!str -1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure PAM Enforces Password Requirements - Minimum Uppercase Characters -
    Ensure PAM variable ucredit is set accordingly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    dest: /etc/security/pwquality.conf
    regexp: ^#?\s*ucredit
    line: ucredit = {{ var_password_pam_ucredit }}
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(4)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(c)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.2.3
  - accounts_password_pam_ucredit
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Set Password Hashing Algorithm   Group contains 1 rule
[ref]   The system's default algorithm for storing password hashes in /etc/shadow is SHA-512. This can be configured in several locations.

Rule   Set Password Hashing Algorithm in /etc/login.defs   [ref]

In /etc/login.defs, add or correct the following line to ensure the system will use yescrypt as the hashing algorithm:
ENCRYPT_METHOD yescrypt
         
Rationale:
Passwords need to be protected at all times, and encryption is the standard method for protecting passwords. If passwords are not encrypted, they can be plainly read (i.e., clear text) and easily compromised. Passwords that are encrypted with a weak algorithm are no more protected than if they are kept in plain text.

Using a stronger hashing algorithm makes password cracking attacks more difficult.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_set_password_hashing_algorithm_logindefs
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.6.2.2, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.13.11, CCI-000196, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 0418, 1055, 1402, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(c), IA-5(1)(c), CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.1, SRG-OS-000073-GPOS-00041, 5.4.4, 8.3.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'login' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_password_hashing_algorithm='yescrypt'

# Strip any search characters in the key arg so that the key can be replaced without
# adding any search characters to the config file.
stripped_key=$(sed 's/[\^=\$,;+]*//g' <<< "^ENCRYPT_METHOD")

# shellcheck disable=SC2059
printf -v formatted_output "%s %s" "$stripped_key" "$var_password_hashing_algorithm"

# If the key exists, change it. Otherwise, add it to the config_file.
# We search for the key string followed by a word boundary (matched by \>),
# so if we search for 'setting', 'setting2' won't match.
if LC_ALL=C grep -q -m 1 -i -e "^ENCRYPT_METHOD\\>" "/etc/login.defs"; then
    escaped_formatted_output=$(sed -e 's|/|\\/|g' <<< "$formatted_output")
    LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks "s/^ENCRYPT_METHOD\\>.*/$escaped_formatted_output/gi" "/etc/login.defs"
else
    if [[ -s "/etc/login.defs" ]] && [[ -n "$(tail -c 1 -- "/etc/login.defs" || true)" ]]; then
        LC_ALL=C sed -i --follow-symlinks '$a'\\ "/etc/login.defs"
    fi
    printf '%s\n' "$formatted_output" >> "/etc/login.defs"
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi
Group   Protect Accounts by Restricting Password-Based Login   Group contains 4 groups and 23 rules
[ref]   Conventionally, Unix shell accounts are accessed by providing a username and password to a login program, which tests these values for correctness using the /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow files. Password-based login is vulnerable to guessing of weak passwords, and to sniffing and man-in-the-middle attacks against passwords entered over a network or at an insecure console. Therefore, mechanisms for accessing accounts by entering usernames and passwords should be restricted to those which are operationally necessary.
Group   Set Account Expiration Parameters   Group contains 3 rules

Rule   Ensure shadow Group is Empty   [ref]

The shadow group allows system programs which require access the ability to read the /etc/shadow file. No users should be assigned to the shadow group.
Warning:  This rule remediation will ensure the group membership is empty in /etc/group. To avoid any disruption the remediation won't change the primary group of users in /etc/passwd if any user has the shadow GID as primary group.
Rationale:
Any users assigned to the shadow group would be granted read access to the /etc/shadow file. If attackers can gain read access to the /etc/shadow file, they can easily run a password cracking program against the hashed passwords to break them. Other security information that is stored in the /etc/shadow file (such as expiration) could also be useful to subvert additional user accounts.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_shadow_group_empty
Identifiers and References

References:  Req-8.2.1, 6.2.4, 8.3.2



sed -ri 's/(^shadow:[^:]*:[^:]*:)([^:]+$)/\1/' /etc/group
Group   Set Password Expiration Parameters   Group contains 5 rules
[ref]   The file /etc/login.defs controls several password-related settings. Programs such as passwd, su, and login consult /etc/login.defs to determine behavior with regard to password aging, expiration warnings, and length. See the man page login.defs(5) for more information.

Users should be forced to change their passwords, in order to decrease the utility of compromised passwords. However, the need to change passwords often should be balanced against the risk that users will reuse or write down passwords if forced to change them too often. Forcing password changes every 90-360 days, depending on the environment, is recommended. Set the appropriate value as PASS_MAX_DAYS and apply it to existing accounts with the -M flag.

The PASS_MIN_DAYS (-m) setting prevents password changes for 7 days after the first change, to discourage password cycling. If you use this setting, train users to contact an administrator for an emergency password change in case a new password becomes compromised. The PASS_WARN_AGE (-W) setting gives users 7 days of warnings at login time that their passwords are about to expire.

For example, for each existing human user USER, expiration parameters could be adjusted to a 180 day maximum password age, 7 day minimum password age, and 7 day warning period with the following command:
$ sudo chage -M 180 -m 7 -W 7 USER

Rule   Set Existing Passwords Maximum Age   [ref]

Configure non-compliant accounts to enforce a 365-day maximum password lifetime restriction by running the following command:
$ sudo chage -M 365
          USER
         
Rationale:
Any password, no matter how complex, can eventually be cracked. Therefore, passwords need to be changed periodically. If the operating system does not limit the lifetime of passwords and force users to change their passwords, there is the risk that the operating system passwords could be compromised.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_set_max_life_existing
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000199, IA-5(f), IA-5(1)(d), CM-6(a), SRG-OS-000076-GPOS-00044, 5.5.1.2, 8.3.9


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

var_accounts_maximum_age_login_defs='365'


while IFS= read -r i; do
    
    chage -M $var_accounts_maximum_age_login_defs $i

done <   <(awk -v var="$var_accounts_maximum_age_login_defs" -F: '(/^[^:]+:[^!*]/ && ($5 > var || $5 == "")) {print $1}' /etc/shadow)

Rule   Set Existing Passwords Minimum Age   [ref]

Configure non-compliant accounts to enforce a 24 hours/1 day minimum password lifetime by running the following command:
$ sudo chage -m 1 USER
         
Rationale:
Enforcing a minimum password lifetime helps to prevent repeated password changes to defeat the password reuse or history enforcement requirement. If users are allowed to immediately and continually change their password, the password could be repeatedly changed in a short period of time to defeat the organization's policy regarding password reuse.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_set_min_life_existing
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000198, IA-5(f), IA-5(1)(d), CM-6(a), SRG-OS-000075-GPOS-00043, 5.5.1.1


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

var_accounts_minimum_age_login_defs='1'


while IFS= read -r i; do
    
    chage -m $var_accounts_minimum_age_login_defs $i

done <   <(awk -v var="$var_accounts_minimum_age_login_defs" -F: '(/^[^:]+:[^!*]/ && ($4 < var || $4 == "")) {print $1}' /etc/shadow)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_minimum_age_login_defs # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_minimum_age_login_defs: !!str 1
  tags:
    - always

- name: Collect users with not correct minimum time period between password changes
  command: |
    awk -F':' '(/^[^:]+:[^!*]/ && ($4 < {{ var_accounts_minimum_age_login_defs }} || $4 == "")) {print $1}' /etc/shadow
  register: user_names
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(d)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - accounts_password_set_min_life_existing
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Change the minimum time period between password changes
  command: |
    chage -m {{ var_accounts_minimum_age_login_defs }} {{ item }}
  with_items: '{{ user_names.stdout_lines }}'
  when: user_names.stdout_lines | length > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(1)(d)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-5(f)
  - accounts_password_set_min_life_existing
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   Verify Proper Storage and Existence of Password Hashes   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   By default, password hashes for local accounts are stored in the second field (colon-separated) in /etc/shadow. This file should be readable only by processes running with root credentials, preventing users from casually accessing others' password hashes and attempting to crack them. However, it remains possible to misconfigure the system and store password hashes in world-readable files such as /etc/passwd, or to even store passwords themselves in plaintext on the system. Using system-provided tools for password change/creation should allow administrators to avoid such misconfiguration.

Rule   Verify All Account Password Hashes are Shadowed   [ref]

If any password hashes are stored in /etc/passwd (in the second field, instead of an x or *), the cause of this misconfiguration should be investigated. The account should have its password reset and the hash should be properly stored, or the account should be deleted entirely.
Rationale:
The hashes for all user account passwords should be stored in the file /etc/shadow and never in /etc/passwd, which is readable by all users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_all_shadowed
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.5.2, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.5.10, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, 1410, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, IA-5(h), CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.2.1, 6.2.1, 8.3.2

Rule   Ensure all users last password change date is in the past   [ref]

All users should have a password change date in the past.
Warning:  Automatic remediation is not available, in order to avoid any system disruption.
Rationale:
If a user recorded password change date is in the future then they could bypass any set password expiration.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_password_last_change_is_in_past
Identifiers and References

References:  5.5.1.5, 8.3.5

Rule   All GIDs referenced in /etc/passwd must be defined in /etc/group   [ref]

Add a group to the system for each GID referenced without a corresponding group.
Rationale:
If a user is assigned the Group Identifier (GID) of a group not existing on the system, and a group with the Group Identifier (GID) is subsequently created, the user may have unintended rights to any files associated with the group.
Severity: 
low
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_gid_passwd_group_same
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, 5, 5.5.2, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, CCI-000764, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, A.18.1.4, A.7.1.1, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, IA-2, CM-6(a), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, Req-8.5.a, SRG-OS-000104-GPOS-00051, 6.2.3, 8.2.2

Rule   Ensure There Are No Accounts With Blank or Null Passwords   [ref]

Check the "/etc/shadow" file for blank passwords with the following command:
$ sudo awk -F: '!$2 {print $1}' /etc/shadow
If the command returns any results, this is a finding. Configure all accounts on the system to have a password or lock the account with the following commands: Perform a password reset:
$ sudo passwd [username]
Lock an account:
$ sudo passwd -l [username]
Warning:  Note that this rule is not applicable for systems running within a container. Having user with empty password within a container is not considered a risk, because it should not be possible to directly login into a container anyway.
Rationale:
If an account has an empty password, anyone could log in and run commands with the privileges of that account. Accounts with empty passwords should never be used in operational environments.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_empty_passwords_etc_shadow
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, CM-6(b), CM-6.1(iv), SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.2, 2.2.2


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

readarray -t users_with_empty_pass < <(sudo awk -F: '!$2 {print $1}' /etc/shadow)

for user_with_empty_pass in "${users_with_empty_pass[@]}"
do
    passwd -l $user_with_empty_pass
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Collect users with no password
  command: |
    awk -F: '!$2 {print $1}' /etc/shadow
  register: users_nopasswd
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.2
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords_etc_shadow
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock users with no password
  command: |
    passwd -l {{ item }}
  with_items: '{{ users_nopasswd.stdout_lines }}'
  when:
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - users_nopasswd.stdout_lines | length > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.2
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_empty_passwords_etc_shadow
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Verify No .forward Files Exist   [ref]

The .forward file specifies an email address to forward the user's mail to.
Rationale:
Use of the .forward file poses a security risk in that sensitive data may be inadvertently transferred outside the organization. The .forward file also poses a risk as it can be used to execute commands that may perform unintended actions.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_forward_files
Identifiers and References

References:  6.2.15

Rule   Verify No netrc Files Exist   [ref]

The .netrc files contain login information used to auto-login into FTP servers and reside in the user's home directory. These files may contain unencrypted passwords to remote FTP servers making them susceptible to access by unauthorized users and should not be used. Any .netrc files should be removed.
Rationale:
Unencrypted passwords for remote FTP servers may be stored in .netrc files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_netrc_files
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, DSS05.02, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.03, DSS06.06, DSS06.10, CCI-000196, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.5.3, 4.3.3.5.4, 4.3.3.5.5, 4.3.3.5.6, 4.3.3.5.7, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.1, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.11, SR 1.12, SR 1.13, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.6, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 2.2, SR 2.3, SR 2.4, SR 2.5, SR 2.6, SR 2.7, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R1.3, CIP-003-8 R3, CIP-003-8 R3.1, CIP-003-8 R3.2, CIP-003-8 R3.3, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, IA-5(h), IA-5(1)(c), CM-6(a), IA-5(7), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.PT-3, 6.2.14

Group   Restrict Root Logins   Group contains 6 rules
[ref]   Direct root logins should be allowed only for emergency use. In normal situations, the administrator should access the system via a unique unprivileged account, and then use su or sudo to execute privileged commands. Discouraging administrators from accessing the root account directly ensures an audit trail in organizations with multiple administrators. Locking down the channels through which root can connect directly also reduces opportunities for password-guessing against the root account. The login program uses the file /etc/securetty to determine which interfaces should allow root logins. The virtual devices /dev/console and /dev/tty* represent the system consoles (accessible via the Ctrl-Alt-F1 through Ctrl-Alt-F6 keyboard sequences on a default installation). The default securetty file also contains /dev/vc/*. These are likely to be deprecated in most environments, but may be retained for compatibility. Root should also be prohibited from connecting via network protocols. Other sections of this document include guidance describing how to prevent root from logging in via SSH.

Rule   Verify Only Root Has UID 0   [ref]

If any account other than root has a UID of 0, this misconfiguration should be investigated and the accounts other than root should be removed or have their UID changed.
If the account is associated with system commands or applications the UID should be changed to one greater than "0" but less than "1000." Otherwise assign a UID greater than "1000" that has not already been assigned.
Rationale:
An account has root authority if it has a UID of 0. Multiple accounts with a UID of 0 afford more opportunity for potential intruders to guess a password for a privileged account. Proper configuration of sudo is recommended to afford multiple system administrators access to root privileges in an accountable manner.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_no_uid_except_zero
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, APO01.06, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS05.10, DSS06.02, DSS06.03, DSS06.10, 3.1.1, 3.1.5, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 5.2, A.10.1.1, A.11.1.4, A.11.1.5, A.11.2.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.1.3, A.13.2.1, A.13.2.3, A.13.2.4, A.14.1.2, A.14.1.3, A.18.1.4, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.7.1.2, A.7.3.1, A.8.2.2, A.8.2.3, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, IA-2, AC-6(5), IA-4(b), PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, PR.AC-7, PR.DS-5, Req-8.5, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.10, 8.2.1


awk -F: '$3 == 0 && $1 != "root" { print $1 }' /etc/passwd | xargs --no-run-if-empty --max-lines=1 passwd -l

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get all /etc/passwd file entries
  getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(5)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - NIST-800-53-IA-4(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.1
  - accounts_no_uid_except_zero
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Lock the password of the user accounts other than root with uid 0
  command: passwd -l {{ item.key }}
  loop: '{{ getent_passwd | dict2items | rejectattr(''key'', ''search'', ''root'')
    | list }}'
  when: item.value.1  == '0'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.5
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(5)
  - NIST-800-53-IA-2
  - NIST-800-53-IA-4(b)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-8.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.1
  - accounts_no_uid_except_zero
  - high_severity
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Verify Root Has A Primary GID 0   [ref]

The root user should have a primary group of 0.
Rationale:
To help ensure that root-owned files are not inadvertently exposed to other users.
Severity: 
high
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_root_gid_zero
Identifiers and References

References:  Req-8.1.1, 5.5.3, 8.2.1

Rule   Ensure the Group Used by pam_wheel.so Module Exists on System and is Empty   [ref]

Ensure that the group sugroup referenced by var_pam_wheel_group_for_su variable and used as value for the pam_wheel.so group option exists and has no members. This empty group used by pam_wheel.so in /etc/pam.d/su ensures that no user can run commands with altered privileges through the su command.
Warning:  Note that this rule just ensures the group exists and has no members. This rule does not configure pam_wheel.so module. The pam_wheel.so module configuration is accomplished by use_pam_wheel_group_for_su rule.
Rationale:
The su program allows to run commands with a substitute user and group ID. It is commonly used to run commands as the root user. Limiting access to such command is considered a good security practice.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_pam_wheel_group_empty
Identifiers and References

References:  5.3.7, 2.2.6


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_pam_wheel_group_for_su='sugroup'


if ! grep -q "^${var_pam_wheel_group_for_su}:[^:]*:[^:]*:[^:]*" /etc/group; then
    groupadd ${var_pam_wheel_group_for_su}
fi

# group must be empty
gpasswd -M '' ${var_pam_wheel_group_for_su}

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - ensure_pam_wheel_group_empty
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_pam_wheel_group_for_su # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_pam_wheel_group_for_su: !!str sugroup
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure the Group Used by pam_wheel.so Module Exists on System and is Empty
    - Ensure {{ var_pam_wheel_group_for_su }} Group Exists
  ansible.builtin.group:
    name: '{{ var_pam_wheel_group_for_su }}'
    state: present
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - ensure_pam_wheel_group_empty
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Group Used by pam_wheel.so Module Exists on System and is Empty
    - Ensure {{ var_pam_wheel_group_for_su }} Group is Empty
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/group
    regexp: ^({{ var_pam_wheel_group_for_su }}:[^:]+:[0-9]+:).*$
    line: \1
    backrefs: true
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - ensure_pam_wheel_group_empty
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure Authentication Required for Single User Mode   [ref]

Single user mode is used for recovery when the system detects an issue during boot or by manual selection from the bootloader.
Rationale:
Requiring authentication in single user mode prevents an unauthorized user from rebooting the system into single user to gain root privileges without credentials.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_ensure_root_password_configured
Identifiers and References

References:  1.4.3, 2.2.2

Rule   Ensure that System Accounts Do Not Run a Shell Upon Login   [ref]

Some accounts are not associated with a human user of the system, and exist to perform some administrative functions. Should an attacker be able to log into these accounts, they should not be granted access to a shell.

The login shell for each local account is stored in the last field of each line in /etc/passwd. System accounts are those user accounts with a user ID less than 1000. The user ID is stored in the third field. If any system account other than root has a login shell, disable it with the command:
$ sudo usermod -s /sbin/nologin account
         
Warning:  Do not perform the steps in this section on the root account. Doing so might cause the system to become inaccessible.
Rationale:
Ensuring shells are not given to system accounts upon login makes it more difficult for attackers to make use of system accounts.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_no_shelllogin_for_systemaccounts
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 3, 5, 7, 8, DSS01.03, DSS03.05, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, DSS06.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.3.2.2, 4.3.3.5.1, 4.3.3.5.2, 4.3.3.7.2, 4.3.3.7.3, 4.3.3.7.4, SR 1.1, SR 1.2, SR 1.3, SR 1.4, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, SR 2.1, SR 6.2, 1491, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.3, A.6.1.2, A.7.1.1, A.9.1.2, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.2, A.9.2.3, A.9.2.4, A.9.2.6, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, A.9.4.4, A.9.4.5, AC-6, CM-6(a), CM-6(b), CM-6.1(iv), DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, PR.AC-1, PR.AC-4, PR.AC-6, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 5.5.2, 8.2.2


Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

readarray -t systemaccounts < <(awk -F: '($3 < 1000 && $3 != root \
  && $7 != "\/sbin\/shutdown" && $7 != "\/sbin\/halt" && $7 != "\/bin\/sync") \
  { print $1 }' /etc/passwd)

for systemaccount in "${systemaccounts[@]}"; do
    usermod -s /sbin/nologin "$systemaccount"
done

Complexity:low
Disruption:medium
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure that System Accounts Do Not Run a Shell Upon Login - Get All Local
    Users From /etc/passwd
  ansible.builtin.getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.2
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - no_shelllogin_for_systemaccounts
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure that System Accounts Do Not Run a Shell Upon Login - Create local_users
    Variable From getent_passwd Facts
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    local_users: '{{ ansible_facts.getent_passwd | dict2items }}'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.2
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - no_shelllogin_for_systemaccounts
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure that System Accounts Do Not Run a Shell Upon Login -  Disable Login
    Shell for System Accounts
  ansible.builtin.user:
    name: '{{ item.key }}'
    shell: /sbin/nologin
  loop: '{{ local_users }}'
  when:
  - item.key not in ['root']
  - item.value[1]|int < 1000
  - item.value[5] not in ['/sbin/shutdown', '/sbin/halt', '/bin/sync']
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(b)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6.1(iv)
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.2.2
  - low_complexity
  - medium_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - no_shelllogin_for_systemaccounts
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Enforce Usage of pam_wheel with Group Parameter for su Authentication   [ref]

To ensure that only users who are members of the group set in the group option of pam_wheel.so module can run commands with altered privileges through the su command, make sure that the following line exists in the file /etc/pam.d/su:
auth required pam_wheel.so use_uid group=sugroup
         
Warning:  Note that ensure_pam_wheel_group_empty rule complements this requirement by ensuring the referenced group exists and has no members.
Rationale:
The su program allows to run commands with a substitute user and group ID. It is commonly used to run commands as the root user. Limiting access to such command is considered a good security practice.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_use_pam_wheel_group_for_su
Identifiers and References

References:  5.3.7, 2.2.6


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'libpam-runtime' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_pam_wheel_group_for_su='sugroup'


PAM_CONF=/etc/pam.d/su

pamstr=$(grep -P '^auth\s+required\s+pam_wheel\.so\s+(?=[^#]*\buse_uid\b)(?=[^#]*\bgroup=)' ${PAM_CONF})
if [ -z "$pamstr" ]; then
    sed -Ei '/^auth\b.*\brequired\b.*\bpam_wheel\.so/d' ${PAM_CONF} # remove any remaining uncommented pam_wheel.so line
    sed -Ei "/^auth\s+sufficient\s+pam_rootok\.so.*$/a auth             required        pam_wheel.so use_uid group=${var_pam_wheel_group_for_su}" ${PAM_CONF}
else
    group_val=$(echo -n "$pamstr" | grep -Eo '\bgroup=[_a-z][-0-9_a-z]*' | cut -d '=' -f 2)
    if [ -z "${group_val}" ] || [ ${group_val} != ${var_pam_wheel_group_for_su} ]; then
        sed -Ei "s/(^auth\s+required\s+pam_wheel.so\s+[^#]*group=)[_a-z][-0-9_a-z]*/\1${var_pam_wheel_group_for_su}/" ${PAM_CONF}
    fi
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - use_pam_wheel_group_for_su
- name: XCCDF Value var_pam_wheel_group_for_su # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_pam_wheel_group_for_su: !!str sugroup
  tags:
    - always

- name: Enforce Usage of pam_wheel with Group Parameter for su Authentication - Add
    the group to the /etc/pam.d/su file
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/pam.d/su
    state: present
    regexp: ^[\s]*#[\s]*auth[\s]+required[\s]+pam_wheel\.so[\s]+use_uid group=$
    line: auth             required        pam_wheel.so use_uid group={{ var_pam_wheel_group_for_su
      }}
  when: '"libpam-runtime" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - PCI-DSSv4-2.2.6
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
  - use_pam_wheel_group_for_su

Rule   Ensure All Groups on the System Have Unique Group ID   [ref]

Change the group name or delete groups, so each has a unique id.
Warning:  Automatic remediation of this control is not available due to the unique requirements of each system.
Rationale:
To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, groups must be identified uniquely to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_group_unique_id
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000764, SRG-OS-000104-GPOS-00051, 6.2.6, 8.2.1

Rule   Ensure All Groups on the System Have Unique Group Names   [ref]

Change the group name or delete groups, so each has a unique name.
Warning:  Automatic remediation of this control is not available due to the unique requirements of each system.
Rationale:
To assure accountability and prevent unauthenticated access, groups must be identified uniquely to prevent potential misuse and compromise of the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_group_unique_name
Identifiers and References

References:  6.2.8, 8.2.1

Group   Secure Session Configuration Files for Login Accounts   Group contains 2 groups and 14 rules
[ref]   When a user logs into a Unix account, the system configures the user's session by reading a number of files. Many of these files are located in the user's home directory, and may have weak permissions as a result of user error or misconfiguration. If an attacker can modify or even read certain types of account configuration information, they can often gain full access to the affected user's account. Therefore, it is important to test and correct configuration file permissions for interactive accounts, particularly those of privileged users such as root or system administrators.
Group   Ensure that No Dangerous Directories Exist in Root's Path   Group contains 2 rules
[ref]   The active path of the root account can be obtained by starting a new root shell and running:
# echo $PATH
This will produce a colon-separated list of directories in the path.

Certain path elements could be considered dangerous, as they could lead to root executing unknown or untrusted programs, which could contain malicious code. Since root may sometimes work inside untrusted directories, the . character, which represents the current directory, should never be in the root path, nor should any directory which can be written to by an unprivileged or semi-privileged (system) user.

It is a good practice for administrators to always execute privileged commands by typing the full path to the command.

Rule   Ensure that Root's Path Does Not Include World or Group-Writable Directories   [ref]

For each element in root's path, run:
# ls -ld DIR
         
and ensure that write permissions are disabled for group and other.
Rationale:
Such entries increase the risk that root could execute code provided by unprivileged users, and potentially malicious code.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_root_path_dirs_no_write
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-6(a), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, 6.2.9

Rule   Ensure that Root's Path Does Not Include Relative Paths or Null Directories   [ref]

Ensure that none of the directories in root's path is equal to a single . character, or that it contains any instances that lead to relative path traversal, such as .. or beginning a path without the slash (/) character. Also ensure that there are no "empty" elements in the path, such as in these examples:
PATH=:/bin
PATH=/bin:
PATH=/bin::/sbin
These empty elements have the same effect as a single . character.
Rationale:
Including these entries increases the risk that root could execute code from an untrusted location.
Severity: 
unknown
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_root_path_no_dot
Identifiers and References

References:  11, 3, 9, BAI10.01, BAI10.02, BAI10.03, BAI10.05, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.2, 4.3.4.3.3, SR 7.6, A.12.1.2, A.12.5.1, A.12.6.2, A.14.2.2, A.14.2.3, A.14.2.4, CM-6(a), CM-6(a), PR.IP-1, 6.2.9

Group   Ensure that Users Have Sensible Umask Values   Group contains 4 rules
[ref]   The umask setting controls the default permissions for the creation of new files. With a default umask setting of 077, files and directories created by users will not be readable by any other user on the system. Users who wish to make specific files group- or world-readable can accomplish this by using the chmod command. Additionally, users can make all their files readable to their group by default by setting a umask of 027 in their shell configuration files. If default per-user groups exist (that is, if every user has a default group whose name is the same as that user's username and whose only member is the user), then it may even be safe for users to select a umask of 007, making it very easy to intentionally share files with groups of which the user is a member.

Rule   Ensure the Default Bash Umask is Set Correctly   [ref]

To ensure the default umask for users of the Bash shell is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/bashrc to read as follows:
umask 027
         
Rationale:
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
Identifiers and References

References:  18, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 5.5.4, BP28(R36)


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'bash' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

var_accounts_user_umask='027'






grep -q "^\s*umask" /etc/bash.bashrc && \
  sed -i -E -e "s/^(\s*umask).*/\1 $var_accounts_user_umask/g" /etc/bash.bashrc
if ! [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/bash.bashrc
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 027
  tags:
    - always

- name: Check if umask in /etc/bash.bashrc is already set
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    path: /etc/bash.bashrc
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask\s+.*
    state: absent
  check_mode: true
  changed_when: false
  register: umask_replace
  when: '"bash" in ansible_facts.packages'
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Replace user umask in /etc/bash.bashrc
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    path: /etc/bash.bashrc
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask(\s+).*
    replace: \g<1>umask\g<2>{{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when:
  - '"bash" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - umask_replace.found > 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default umask is Appended Correctly
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    path: /etc/bash.bashrc
    line: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when:
  - '"bash" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - umask_replace.found == 0
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_bashrc
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile   [ref]

To ensure the default umask controlled by /etc/profile is set properly, add or correct the umask setting in /etc/profile to read as follows:
umask 027
         
Note that /etc/profile also reads scrips within /etc/profile.d directory. These scripts are also valid files to set umask value. Therefore, they should also be considered during the check and properly remediated, if necessary.
Rationale:
The umask value influences the permissions assigned to files when they are created. A misconfigured umask value could result in files with excessive permissions that can be read or written to by unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_etc_profile
Identifiers and References

References:  18, APO13.01, BAI03.01, BAI03.02, BAI03.03, CCI-000366, 4.3.4.3.3, A.14.1.1, A.14.2.1, A.14.2.5, A.6.1.5, CIP-003-8 R5.1.1, CIP-003-8 R5.3, CIP-004-6 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R2.1, CIP-007-3 R2.2, CIP-007-3 R2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.1, CIP-007-3 R5.1.2, AC-6(1), CM-6(a), PR.IP-2, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 5.5.4, BP28(R36)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

var_accounts_user_umask='027'


readarray -t profile_files < <(find /etc/profile.d/ -type f -name '*.sh' -or -name 'sh.local')

for file in "${profile_files[@]}" /etc/profile; do
  grep -qE '^[^#]*umask' "$file" && sed -i -E "s/^(\s*umask\s*)[0-7]+/\1$var_accounts_user_umask/g" "$file"
done

if ! grep -qrE '^[^#]*umask' /etc/profile*; then
  echo "umask $var_accounts_user_umask" >> /etc/profile
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_user_umask # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_user_umask: !!str 027
  tags:
    - always

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Locate Profile
    Configuration Files Where umask Is Defined
  ansible.builtin.find:
    paths:
    - /etc/profile.d
    patterns:
    - sh.local
    - '*.sh'
    contains: ^[\s]*umask\s+\d+
  register: result_profile_d_files
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Replace Existing
    umask Value in Files From /etc/profile.d
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    path: '{{ item.path }}'
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask\s+\d+
    replace: \1umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  loop: '{{ result_profile_d_files.files }}'
  register: result_umask_replaced_profile_d
  when: result_profile_d_files.matched
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Ensure umask Is
    Set in /etc/profile if Not Already Set Elsewhere
  ansible.builtin.lineinfile:
    create: true
    mode: 420
    path: /etc/profile
    line: umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  when: not result_profile_d_files.matched
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly in /etc/profile - Ensure umask Value
    For All Existing umask Definition in /etc/profile
  ansible.builtin.replace:
    path: /etc/profile
    regexp: ^(\s*)umask\s+\d+
    replace: \1umask {{ var_accounts_user_umask }}
  register: result_umask_replaced_profile
  tags:
  - NIST-800-53-AC-6(1)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - accounts_umask_etc_profile
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Ensure the Default Umask is Set Correctly For Interactive Users   [ref]

Remove the UMASK environment variable from all interactive users initialization files.
Rationale:
The umask controls the default access mode assigned to newly created files. A umask of 077 limits new files to mode 700 or less permissive. Although umask can be represented as a four-digit number, the first digit representing special access modes is typically ignored or required to be 0. This requirement applies to the globally configured system defaults and the local interactive user defaults for each account on the system.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_umask_interactive_users
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, CCI-001814, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00228, 5.5.4


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

while IFS= read -r dir; do
    while IFS= read -r -d '' file; do
        if [ "$(basename $file)" != ".bash_history" ]; then
            sed -i 's/^\(\s*umask\s*\)/#\1/g' "$file"
        fi
    done <   <(find $dir -maxdepth 1 -type f -name ".*" -print0)
done <   <(awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) print $6}' /etc/passwd)

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure interactive local users are the owners of their respective initialization
    files
  ansible.builtin.shell:
    cmd: |-
      for dir in $(awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) print $6}' /etc/passwd); do
        for file in $(find $dir -maxdepth 1 -type f -name ".*"); do
          if [ "$(basename $file)" != ".bash_history" ]; then
            sed -i 's/^\(\s*umask\s*\)/#\1/g' $file
          fi
        done
      done
  tags:
  - accounts_umask_interactive_users
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Set Interactive Session Timeout   [ref]

Setting the TMOUT option in /etc/profile ensures that all user sessions will terminate based on inactivity. The value of TMOUT should be exported and read only. The TMOUT setting in a file loaded by /etc/profile, e.g. /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh should read as follows:
TMOUT=900
        
readonly TMOUT export TMOUT
Rationale:
Terminating an idle session within a short time period reduces the window of opportunity for unauthorized personnel to take control of a management session enabled on the console or console port that has been left unattended.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_tmout
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 12, 15, 16, DSS05.04, DSS05.10, DSS06.10, 3.1.11, CCI-000057, CCI-001133, CCI-002361, 4.3.3.6.1, 4.3.3.6.2, 4.3.3.6.3, 4.3.3.6.4, 4.3.3.6.5, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.3.6.7, 4.3.3.6.8, 4.3.3.6.9, SR 1.1, SR 1.10, SR 1.2, SR 1.5, SR 1.7, SR 1.8, SR 1.9, A.18.1.4, A.9.2.1, A.9.2.4, A.9.3.1, A.9.4.2, A.9.4.3, CIP-004-6 R2.2.3, CIP-007-3 R5.1, CIP-007-3 R5.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.1, CIP-007-3 R5.3.2, CIP-007-3 R5.3.3, AC-12, SC-10, AC-2(5), CM-6(a), PR.AC-7, FMT_MOF_EXT.1, SRG-OS-000163-GPOS-00072, SRG-OS-000029-GPOS-00010, 5.5.5, BP28(R32), 8.6.1


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ]; then

var_accounts_tmout='900'


# if 0, no occurence of tmout found, if 1, occurence found
tmout_found=0

for f in /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/profile /etc/profile.d/*.sh; do
    if grep --silent '^\s*TMOUT' $f; then
        sed -i -E "s/^(\s*)TMOUT\s*=\s*(\w|\$)*(.*)$/\1TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout\3/g" $f
        tmout_found=1
        if ! grep --silent '^\s*readonly TMOUT' $f ; then
            echo "readonly TMOUT" >> $f
        fi
        if ! grep --silent '^\s*export TMOUT' $f ; then
            echo "export TMOUT" >> $f
        fi
    fi
done

if [ $tmout_found -eq 0 ]; then
        echo -e "\n# Set TMOUT to $var_accounts_tmout per security requirements" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        echo "TMOUT=$var_accounts_tmout" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        echo "readonly TMOUT" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
        echo "export TMOUT" >> /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
fi

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: XCCDF Value var_accounts_tmout # promote to variable
  set_fact:
    var_accounts_tmout: !!str 900
  tags:
    - always

- name: Correct any occurrence of TMOUT in /etc/profile
  replace:
    path: /etc/profile
    regexp: ^[^#].*TMOUT=.*
    replace: typeset -xr TMOUT={{ var_accounts_tmout }}
  register: profile_replaced
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
  - NIST-800-53-AC-12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-10
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_tmout
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set Interactive Session Timeout
  lineinfile:
    path: /etc/profile.d/tmout.sh
    create: true
    regexp: TMOUT=
    line: typeset -xr TMOUT={{ var_accounts_tmout }}
    state: present
  when: ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.11
  - NIST-800-53-AC-12
  - NIST-800-53-AC-2(5)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - NIST-800-53-SC-10
  - PCI-DSSv4-8.6.1
  - accounts_tmout
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   User Initialization Files Must Be Group-Owned By The Primary Group   [ref]

Change the group owner of interactive users files to the group found in
/etc/passwd
for the user. To change the group owner of a local interactive user home directory, use the following command:
$ sudo chgrp USER_GROUP /home/USER/.INIT_FILE
        
This rule ensures every initialization file related to an interactive user is group-owned by an interactive user.
Warning:  Due to OVAL limitation, this rule can report a false negative in a specific situation where two interactive users swap the group-ownership of their respective initialization files.
Rationale:
Local initialization files for interactive users are used to configure the user's shell environment upon logon. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_user_dot_group_ownership
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.17, BP28(R50)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) system("chgrp -f " $4" "$6"/.[^\.]?*") }' /etc/passwd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure interactive local users are the group-owners of their respective initialization
    files
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) system("chgrp -f " $4" "$6"/.[^\.]?*")
      }' /etc/passwd
  tags:
  - accounts_user_dot_group_ownership
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   User Initialization Files Must Not Run World-Writable Programs   [ref]

Set the mode on files being executed by the user initialization files with the following command:
$ sudo chmod o-w FILE
        
Rationale:
If user start-up files execute world-writable programs, especially in unprotected directories, they could be maliciously modified to destroy user files or otherwise compromise the system at the user level. If the system is compromised at the user level, it is easier to elevate privileges to eventually compromise the system at the root and network level.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_user_dot_no_world_writable_programs
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.17


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

readarray -t world_writable_files < <(find / -xdev -type f -perm -0002 2> /dev/null)
readarray -t interactive_home_dirs < <(awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) print $6 }' /etc/passwd)

for world_writable in "${world_writable_files[@]}"; do
    for homedir in "${interactive_home_dirs[@]}"; do
        if grep -q -d skip "$world_writable" "$homedir"/.*; then
            chmod o-w $world_writable
            break
        fi
    done
done

Rule   User Initialization Files Must Be Owned By the Primary User   [ref]

Set the owner of the user initialization files for interactive users to the primary owner with the following command:
$ sudo chown USER /home/USER/.*
This rule ensures every initialization file related to an interactive user is owned by an interactive user.
Warning:  Due to OVAL limitation, this rule can report a false negative in a specific situation where two interactive users swap the ownership of their respective initialization files.
Rationale:
Local initialization files are used to configure the user's shell environment upon logon. Malicious modification of these files could compromise accounts upon logon.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_user_dot_user_ownership
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.17, BP28(R50)


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) system("chown -f " $3" "$6"/.[^\.]?*") }' /etc/passwd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Ensure interactive local users are the owners of their respective initialization
    files
  ansible.builtin.command:
    cmd: awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) system("chown -f " $3" "$6"/.[^\.]?*")
      }' /etc/passwd
  tags:
  - accounts_user_dot_user_ownership
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   All Interactive Users Home Directories Must Exist   [ref]

Create home directories to all local interactive users that currently do not have a home directory assigned. Use the following commands to create the user home directory assigned in /etc/passwd:
$ sudo mkdir /home/USER
        
Rationale:
If a local interactive user has a home directory defined that does not exist, the user may be given access to the / directory as the current working directory upon logon. This could create a Denial of Service because the user would not be able to access their logon configuration files, and it may give them visibility to system files they normally would not be able to access.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_accounts_user_interactive_home_directory_exists
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.11


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for user in $(awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) print $1}' /etc/passwd); do
    mkhomedir_helper $user 0077;
done

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get all local users from /etc/passwd
  ansible.builtin.getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - accounts_user_interactive_home_directory_exists
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Create local_users variable from the getent output
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    local_users: '{{ ansible_facts.getent_passwd|dict2items }}'
  tags:
  - accounts_user_interactive_home_directory_exists
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure interactive users have a home directory exists
  ansible.builtin.user:
    name: '{{ item.key }}'
    create_home: true
  loop: '{{ local_users }}'
  when:
  - item.value[2]|int >= 1000
  - item.value[2]|int != 65534
  tags:
  - accounts_user_interactive_home_directory_exists
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   All Interactive User Home Directories Must Be Group-Owned By The Primary Group   [ref]

Change the group owner of interactive users home directory to the group found in /etc/passwd. To change the group owner of interactive users home directory, use the following command:
$ sudo chgrp USER_GROUP /home/USER
        
This rule ensures every home directory related to an interactive user is group-owned by an interactive user. It also ensures that interactive users are group-owners of one and only one home directory.
Warning:  Due to OVAL limitation, this rule can report a false negative in a specific situation where two interactive users swap the group-ownership of their respective home directories.
Rationale:
If the Group Identifier (GID) of a local interactive users home directory is not the same as the primary GID of the user, this would allow unauthorized access to the users files, and users that share the same group may not be able to access files that they legitimately should.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_groupownership_home_directories
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.12


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) system("chgrp -f " $4" "$6) }' /etc/passwd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get all local users from /etc/passwd
  ansible.builtin.getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - file_groupownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Create local_users variable from the getent output
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    local_users: '{{ ansible_facts.getent_passwd|dict2items }}'
  tags:
  - file_groupownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Test for existence of home directories to avoid creating them, but only fixing
    group ownership
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: '{{ item.value[4] }}'
  register: path_exists
  loop: '{{ local_users }}'
  when:
  - item.value[1]|int >= 1000
  - item.value[1]|int != 65534
  tags:
  - file_groupownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure interactive local users are the group-owners of their respective home
    directories
  ansible.builtin.file:
    path: '{{ item.0.value[4] }}'
    group: '{{ item.0.value[2] }}'
  loop: '{{ local_users|zip(path_exists.results)|list }}'
  when: item.1.stat is defined and item.1.stat.exists
  tags:
  - file_groupownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   All Interactive User Home Directories Must Be Owned By The Primary User   [ref]

Change the owner of interactive users home directories to that correct owner. To change the owner of a interactive users home directory, use the following command:
$ sudo chown USER /home/USER
        
This rule ensures every home directory related to an interactive user is owned by an interactive user. It also ensures that interactive users are owners of one and only one home directory.
Warning:  Due to OVAL limitation, this rule can report a false negative in a specific situation where two interactive users swap the ownership of their respective home directories.
Rationale:
If a local interactive user does not own their home directory, unauthorized users could access or modify the user's files, and the users may not be able to access their own files.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_ownership_home_directories
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.12


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) system("chown -f " $3" "$6) }' /etc/passwd

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get all local users from /etc/passwd
  ansible.builtin.getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - file_ownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Create local_users variable from the getent output
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    local_users: '{{ ansible_facts.getent_passwd|dict2items }}'
  tags:
  - file_ownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Test for existence of home directories to avoid creating them, but only fixing
    ownership
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: '{{ item.value[4] }}'
  register: path_exists
  loop: '{{ local_users }}'
  when:
  - item.value[1]|int >= 1000
  - item.value[1]|int != 65534
  tags:
  - file_ownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure interactive local users are the owners of their respective home directories
  ansible.builtin.file:
    path: '{{ item.0.value[4] }}'
    owner: '{{ item.0.value[1] }}'
  loop: '{{ local_users|zip(path_exists.results)|list }}'
  when: item.1.stat is defined and item.1.stat.exists
  tags:
  - file_ownership_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   All Interactive User Home Directories Must Have mode 0750 Or Less Permissive   [ref]

Change the mode of interactive users home directories to 0750. To change the mode of interactive users home directory, use the following command:
$ sudo chmod 0750 /home/USER
        
Rationale:
Excessive permissions on local interactive user home directories may allow unauthorized access to user files by other users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_file_permissions_home_directories
Identifiers and References

References:  CCI-000366, SRG-OS-000480-GPOS-00227, 6.2.13


Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict

for home_dir in $(awk -F':' '{ if ($3 >= 1000 && $3 != 65534) print $6 }' /etc/passwd); do
    # Only update the permissions when necessary. This will avoid changing the inode timestamp when
    # the permission is already defined as expected, therefore not impacting in possible integrity
    # check systems that also check inodes timestamps.
    find "$home_dir" -maxdepth 0 -perm /7027 -exec chmod u-s,g-w-s,o=- {} \;
done

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:false
Strategy:restrict
- name: Get all local users from /etc/passwd
  ansible.builtin.getent:
    database: passwd
    split: ':'
  tags:
  - file_permissions_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Create local_users variable from the getent output
  ansible.builtin.set_fact:
    local_users: '{{ ansible_facts.getent_passwd|dict2items }}'
  tags:
  - file_permissions_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Test for existence home directories to avoid creating them.
  ansible.builtin.stat:
    path: '{{ item.value[4] }}'
  register: path_exists
  loop: '{{ local_users }}'
  when:
  - item.value[1]|int >= 1000
  - item.value[1]|int != 65534
  tags:
  - file_permissions_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Ensure interactive local users have proper permissions on their respective
    home directories
  ansible.builtin.file:
    path: '{{ item.0.value[4] }}'
    mode: u-s,g-w-s,o=-
    follow: false
    recurse: false
  loop: '{{ local_users|zip(path_exists.results)|list }}'
  when: item.1.stat is defined and item.1.stat.exists
  tags:
  - file_permissions_home_directories
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - no_reboot_needed
  - restrict_strategy
Group   System Accounting with auditd   Group contains 11 groups and 86 rules
[ref]   The audit service provides substantial capabilities for recording system activities. By default, the service audits about SELinux AVC denials and certain types of security-relevant events such as system logins, account modifications, and authentication events performed by programs such as sudo. Under its default configuration, auditd has modest disk space requirements, and should not noticeably impact system performance.

NOTE: The Linux Audit daemon auditd can be configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules files (*.rules) located in /etc/audit/rules.d location and compile them to create the resulting form of the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during the daemon startup (default configuration). Alternatively, the auditd daemon can use the auditctl utility to read audit rules from the /etc/audit/audit.rules configuration file during daemon startup, and load them into the kernel. The expected behavior is configured via the appropriate ExecStartPost directive setting in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. To instruct the auditd daemon to use the augenrules program to read audit rules (default configuration), use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/augenrules --load
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. In order to instruct the auditd daemon to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules, use the following setting:
ExecStartPost=-/sbin/auditctl -R /etc/audit/audit.rules
in the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file. Refer to [Service] section of the /usr/lib/systemd/system/auditd.service configuration file for further details.

Government networks often have substantial auditing requirements and auditd can be configured to meet these requirements. Examining some example audit records demonstrates how the Linux audit system satisfies common requirements. The following example from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Documentation available at https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html-single/selinux_users_and_administrators_guide/index#sect-Security-Enhanced_Linux-Fixing_Problems-Raw_Audit_Messages shows the substantial amount of information captured in a two typical "raw" audit messages, followed by a breakdown of the most important fields. In this example the message is SELinux-related and reports an AVC denial (and the associated system call) that occurred when the Apache HTTP Server attempted to access the /var/www/html/file1 file (labeled with the samba_share_t type):
type=AVC msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): avc:  denied  { getattr } for pid=2465 comm="httpd"
path="/var/www/html/file1" dev=dm-0 ino=284133 scontext=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0
tcontext=unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0 tclass=file

type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1226874073.147:96): arch=40000003 syscall=196 success=no exit=-13
a0=b98df198 a1=bfec85dc a2=54dff4 a3=2008171 items=0 ppid=2463 pid=2465 auid=502 uid=48
gid=48 euid=48 suid=48 fsuid=48 egid=48 sgid=48 fsgid=48 tty=(none) ses=6 comm="httpd"
exe="/usr/sbin/httpd" subj=unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0 key=(null)
  • msg=audit(1226874073.147:96)
    • The number in parentheses is the unformatted time stamp (Epoch time) for the event, which can be converted to standard time by using the date command.
  • { getattr }
    • The item in braces indicates the permission that was denied. getattr indicates the source process was trying to read the target file's status information. This occurs before reading files. This action is denied due to the file being accessed having the wrong label. Commonly seen permissions include getattr, read, and write.
  • comm="httpd"
    • The executable that launched the process. The full path of the executable is found in the exe= section of the system call (SYSCALL) message, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
  • path="/var/www/html/file1"
    • The path to the object (target) the process attempted to access.
  • scontext="unconfined_u:system_r:httpd_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the process that attempted the denied action. In this case, it is the SELinux context of the Apache HTTP Server, which is running in the httpd_t domain.
  • tcontext="unconfined_u:object_r:samba_share_t:s0"
    • The SELinux context of the object (target) the process attempted to access. In this case, it is the SELinux context of file1. Note: the samba_share_t type is not accessible to processes running in the httpd_t domain.
  • From the system call (SYSCALL) message, two items are of interest:
    • success=no: indicates whether the denial (AVC) was enforced or not. success=no indicates the system call was not successful (SELinux denied access). success=yes indicates the system call was successful - this can be seen for permissive domains or unconfined domains, such as initrc_t and kernel_t.
    • exe="/usr/sbin/httpd": the full path to the executable that launched the process, which in this case, is exe="/usr/sbin/httpd".
Group   Configure auditd Rules for Comprehensive Auditing   Group contains 9 groups and 77 rules
[ref]   The auditd program can perform comprehensive monitoring of system activity. This section describes recommended configuration settings for comprehensive auditing, but a full description of the auditing system's capabilities is beyond the scope of this guide. The mailing list linux-audit@redhat.com exists to facilitate community discussion of the auditing system.

The audit subsystem supports extensive collection of events, including:
  • Tracing of arbitrary system calls (identified by name or number) on entry or exit.
  • Filtering by PID, UID, call success, system call argument (with some limitations), etc.
  • Monitoring of specific files for modifications to the file's contents or metadata.

Auditing rules at startup are controlled by the file /etc/audit/audit.rules. Add rules to it to meet the auditing requirements for your organization. Each line in /etc/audit/audit.rules represents a series of arguments that can be passed to auditctl and can be individually tested during runtime. See documentation in /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION and in the related man pages for more details.

If copying any example audit rulesets from /usr/share/doc/audit-VERSION, be sure to comment out the lines containing arch= which are not appropriate for your system's architecture. Then review and understand the following rules, ensuring rules are activated as needed for the appropriate architecture.

After reviewing all the rules, reading the following sections, and editing as needed, the new rules can be activated as follows:
$ sudo service auditd restart
Group   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls   Group contains 13 rules
[ref]   At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. Note that the "-F arch=b32" lines should be present even on a 64 bit system. These commands identify system calls for auditing. Even if the system is 64 bit it can still execute 32 bit system calls. Additionally, these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. An example of this is that the "-S" calls could be split up and placed on separate lines, however, this is less efficient. Add the following to /etc/audit/audit.rules:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If your system is 64 bit then these lines should be duplicated and the arch=b32 replaced with arch=b64 as follows:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod,fchmod,fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown,fchown,fchownat,lchown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
    -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S setxattr,lsetxattr,fsetxattr,removexattr,lremovexattr,fremovexattr -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chmod   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255, 4.1.3.9, BP28(R73), 10.3.4


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'auditd' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="chmod"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit chmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chmod for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of chmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - chown   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S chown -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-OS-000474-GPOS-00219, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255, 4.1.3.9, BP28(R73), 10.3.4


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'auditd' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed && { ! ( grep -q aarch64 /proc/sys/kernel/osrelease ); }; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="chown"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chown fchown fchownat lchown"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit chown tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chown for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for chown for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - chown
      syscall_grouping:
      - chown
      - fchown
      - fchownat
      - lchown

  - name: Check existence of chown in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - not ( ansible_architecture == "aarch64" )
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_chown
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmod   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmod -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b), 164.312(d), 164.312(e), 4.2.3.10, 4.3.2.6.7, 4.3.3.3.9, 4.3.3.5.8, 4.3.3.6.6, 4.3.4.4.7, 4.3.4.5.6, 4.3.4.5.7, 4.3.4.5.8, 4.4.2.1, 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.4, SR 1.13, SR 2.10, SR 2.11, SR 2.12, SR 2.6, SR 2.8, SR 2.9, SR 3.1, SR 3.5, SR 3.8, SR 4.1, SR 4.3, SR 5.1, SR 5.2, SR 5.3, SR 6.1, SR 6.2, SR 7.1, SR 7.6, A.11.2.6, A.12.4.1, A.12.4.2, A.12.4.3, A.12.4.4, A.12.7.1, A.13.1.1, A.13.2.1, A.14.1.3, A.14.2.7, A.15.2.1, A.15.2.2, A.16.1.4, A.16.1.5, A.16.1.7, A.6.2.1, A.6.2.2, AU-2(d), AU-12(c), CM-6(a), DE.AE-3, DE.AE-5, DE.CM-1, DE.CM-3, DE.CM-7, ID.SC-4, PR.AC-3, PR.PT-1, PR.PT-4, RS.AN-1, RS.AN-4, FAU_GEN.1.1.c, Req-10.5.5, SRG-OS-000037-GPOS-00015, SRG-OS-000042-GPOS-00020, SRG-OS-000062-GPOS-00031, SRG-OS-000392-GPOS-00172, SRG-OS-000462-GPOS-00206, SRG-OS-000471-GPOS-00215, SRG-OS-000064-GPOS-00033, SRG-OS-000466-GPOS-00210, SRG-OS-000458-GPOS-00203, SRG-APP-000091-CTR-000160, SRG-APP-000492-CTR-001220, SRG-APP-000493-CTR-001225, SRG-APP-000494-CTR-001230, SRG-APP-000500-CTR-001260, SRG-APP-000507-CTR-001295, SRG-APP-000495-CTR-001235, SRG-APP-000499-CTR-001255, 4.1.3.9, BP28(R73), 10.3.4


# Remediation is applicable only in certain platforms
if [ ! -f /.dockerenv ] && [ ! -f /run/.containerenv ] && dpkg-query --show --showformat='${db:Status-Status}\n' 'auditd' 2>/dev/null | grep -q installed; then

# First perform the remediation of the syscall rule
# Retrieve hardware architecture of the underlying system
[ "$(getconf LONG_BIT)" = "32" ] && RULE_ARCHS=("b32") || RULE_ARCHS=("b32" "b64")

for ARCH in "${RULE_ARCHS[@]}"
do
	ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS="-a always,exit -F arch=$ARCH"
	OTHER_FILTERS=""
	AUID_FILTERS="-F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset"
	SYSCALL="fchmod"
	KEY="perm_mod"
	SYSCALL_GROUPING="chmod fchmod fchmodat"

	# Perform the remediation for both possible tools: 'auditctl' and 'augenrules'
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()

# If audit tool is 'augenrules', then check if the audit rule is defined
# If rule is defined, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules' to the list for inspection
# If rule isn't defined yet, add '/etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules' to the list for inspection
default_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
# As other_filters may include paths, lets use a different delimiter for it
# The "F" script expression tells sed to print the filenames where the expressions matched
readarray -t files_to_inspect < <(sed -s -n -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d" -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" -e "F" /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules)
# Case when particular rule isn't defined in /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules yet
if [ ${#files_to_inspect[@]} -eq "0" ]
then
    file_to_inspect="/etc/audit/rules.d/$KEY.rules"
    files_to_inspect=("$file_to_inspect")
    if [ ! -e "$file_to_inspect" ]
    then
        touch "$file_to_inspect"
        chmod 0640 "$file_to_inspect"
    fi
fi

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
	unset syscall_a
unset syscall_grouping
unset syscall_string
unset syscall
unset file_to_edit
unset rule_to_edit
unset rule_syscalls_to_edit
unset other_string
unset auid_string
unset full_rule

# Load macro arguments into arrays
read -a syscall_a <<< $SYSCALL
read -a syscall_grouping <<< $SYSCALL_GROUPING

# Create a list of audit *.rules files that should be inspected for presence and correctness
# of a particular audit rule. The scheme is as follows:
#
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Tool used to load audit rules | Rule already defined  |  Audit rules file to inspect    |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        auditctl                |     Doesn't matter    |  /etc/audit/audit.rules         |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#        augenrules              |          Yes          |  /etc/audit/rules.d/*.rules     |
#        augenrules              |          No           |  /etc/audit/rules.d/$key.rules  |
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
files_to_inspect=()


# If audit tool is 'auditctl', then add '/etc/audit/audit.rules'
# file to the list of files to be inspected
default_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"
files_to_inspect+=('/etc/audit/audit.rules' )

# After converting to jinja, we cannot return; therefore we skip the rest of the macro if needed instead
skip=1

for audit_file in "${files_to_inspect[@]}"
do
    # Filter existing $audit_file rules' definitions to select those that satisfy the rule pattern,
    # i.e, collect rules that match:
    # * the action, list and arch, (2-nd argument)
    # * the other filters, (3-rd argument)
    # * the auid filters, (4-rd argument)
    readarray -t similar_rules < <(sed -e "/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS/!d"  -e "\#$OTHER_FILTERS#!d" -e "/$AUID_FILTERS/!d" "$audit_file")

    candidate_rules=()
    # Filter out rules that have more fields then required. This will remove rules more specific than the required scope
    for s_rule in "${similar_rules[@]}"
    do
        # Strip all the options and fields we know of,
        # than check if there was any field left over
        extra_fields=$(sed -E -e "s/^$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS//"  -e "s#$OTHER_FILTERS##" -e "s/$AUID_FILTERS//" -e "s/((:?-S [[:alnum:],]+)+)//g" -e "s/-F key=\w+|-k \w+//"<<< "$s_rule")
        grep -q -- "-F" <<< "$extra_fields" || candidate_rules+=("$s_rule")
    done

    if [[ ${#syscall_a[@]} -ge 1 ]]
    then
        # Check if the syscall we want is present in any of the similar existing rules
        for rule in "${candidate_rules[@]}"
        do
            rule_syscalls=$(echo "$rule" | grep -o -P '(-S [\w,]+)+' | xargs)
            all_syscalls_found=0
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls" || {
                   # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
                   all_syscalls_found=1
                   }
            done
            if [[ $all_syscalls_found -eq 0 ]]
            then
                # We found a rule with all the syscall(s) we want; skip rest of macro
                skip=0
                break
            fi

            # Check if this rule can be grouped with our target syscall and keep track of it
            for syscall_g in "${syscall_grouping[@]}"
            do
                if grep -q -- "\b${syscall_g}\b" <<< "$rule_syscalls"
                then
                    file_to_edit=${audit_file}
                    rule_to_edit=${rule}
                    rule_syscalls_to_edit=${rule_syscalls}
                fi
            done
        done
    else
        # If there is any candidate rule, it is compliant; skip rest of macro
        if [ "${#candidate_rules[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            skip=0
        fi
    fi

    if [ "$skip" -eq 0 ]; then
        break
    fi
done

if [ "$skip" -ne 0 ]; then
    # We checked all rules that matched the expected resemblance pattern (action, arch & auid)
    # At this point we know if we need to either append the $full_rule or group
    # the syscall together with an exsiting rule

    # Append the full_rule if it cannot be grouped to any other rule
    if [ -z ${rule_to_edit+x} ]
    then
        # Build full_rule while avoid adding double spaces when other_filters is empty
        if [ "${#syscall_a[@]}" -gt 0 ]
        then
            syscall_string=""
            for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
            do
                syscall_string+=" -S $syscall"
            done
        fi
        other_string=$([[ $OTHER_FILTERS ]] && echo " $OTHER_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        auid_string=$([[ $AUID_FILTERS ]] && echo " $AUID_FILTERS") || /bin/true
        full_rule="$ACTION_ARCH_FILTERS${syscall_string}${other_string}${auid_string} -F key=$KEY" || /bin/true
        echo "$full_rule" >> "$default_file"
        chmod o-rwx ${default_file}
    else
        # Check if the syscalls are declared as a comma separated list or
        # as multiple -S parameters
        if grep -q -- "," <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        then
            delimiter=","
        else
            delimiter=" -S "
        fi
        new_grouped_syscalls="${rule_syscalls_to_edit}"
        for syscall in "${syscall_a[@]}"
        do
            grep -q -- "\b${syscall}\b" <<< "${rule_syscalls_to_edit}" || {
               # A syscall was not found in the candidate rule
               new_grouped_syscalls+="${delimiter}${syscall}"
               }
        done

        # Group the syscall in the rule
        sed -i -e "\#${rule_to_edit}#s#${rule_syscalls_to_edit}#${new_grouped_syscalls}#" "$file_to_edit"
    fi
fi
done

else
    >&2 echo 'Remediation is not applicable, nothing was done'
fi

Complexity:low
Disruption:low
Reboot:true
Strategy:restrict
- name: Gather the package facts
  package_facts:
    manager: auto
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Set architecture for audit fchmod tasks
  set_fact:
    audit_arch: b64
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - ansible_architecture == "aarch64" or ansible_architecture == "ppc64" or ansible_architecture
    == "ppc64le" or ansible_architecture == "s390x" or ansible_architecture == "x86_64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmod for 32bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b32(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b32)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

- name: Perform remediation of Audit rules for fchmod for 64bit platform
  block:

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/rules.d/
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit/rules.d
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: '*.rules'
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Reset syscalls found per file
    set_fact:
      syscalls_per_file: {}
      found_paths_dict: {}

  - name: Declare syscalls found per file
    set_fact: syscalls_per_file="{{ syscalls_per_file | combine( {item.files[0].path
      :[item.item] + syscalls_per_file.get(item.files[0].path, []) } ) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | selectattr(''matched'') | list }}'

  - name: Declare files where syscalls were found
    set_fact: found_paths="{{ find_command.results | map(attribute='files') | flatten
      | map(attribute='path') | list }}"

  - name: Count occurrences of syscalls in paths
    set_fact: found_paths_dict="{{ found_paths_dict | combine({ item:1+found_paths_dict.get(item,
      0) }) }}"
    loop: '{{ find_command.results | map(attribute=''files'') | flatten | map(attribute=''path'')
      | list }}'

  - name: Get path with most syscalls
    set_fact: audit_file="{{ (found_paths_dict | dict2items() | sort(attribute='value')
      | last).key }}"
    when: found_paths | length >= 1

  - name: No file with syscall found, set path to /etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/rules.d/perm_mod.rules"
    when: found_paths | length == 0

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_per_file[audit_file]
        | join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k
        |-F key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0

  - name: Declare list of syscalls
    set_fact:
      syscalls:
      - fchmod
      syscall_grouping:
      - chmod
      - fchmod
      - fchmodat

  - name: Check existence of fchmod in /etc/audit/audit.rules
    find:
      paths: /etc/audit
      contains: -a always,exit -F arch=b64(( -S |,)\w+)*(( -S |,){{ item }})+(( -S
        |,)\w+)* -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (-k\s+|-F\s+key=)\S+\s*$
      patterns: audit.rules
    register: find_command
    loop: '{{ (syscall_grouping + syscalls) | unique }}'

  - name: Set path to /etc/audit/audit.rules
    set_fact: audit_file="/etc/audit/audit.rules"

  - name: Declare found syscalls
    set_fact: syscalls_found="{{ find_command.results | selectattr('matched') | map(attribute='item')
      | list }}"

  - name: Declare missing syscalls
    set_fact: missing_syscalls="{{ syscalls | difference(syscalls_found) }}"

  - name: Replace the audit rule in {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      regexp: (-a always,exit -F arch=b64)(?=.*(?:(?:-S |,)(?:{{ syscalls_found |
        join("|") }}))\b)((?:( -S |,)\w+)+)( -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset (?:-k |-F
        key=)\w+)
      line: \1\2\3{{ missing_syscalls | join("\3") }}\4
      backrefs: true
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length > 0 and missing_syscalls | length > 0

  - name: Add the audit rule to {{ audit_file }}
    lineinfile:
      path: '{{ audit_file }}'
      line: -a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S {{ syscalls | join(',') }} -F auid>=1000
        -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
      create: true
      mode: o-rwx
      state: present
    when: syscalls_found | length == 0
  when:
  - '"auditd" in ansible_facts.packages'
  - ansible_virtualization_type not in ["docker", "lxc", "openvz", "podman", "container"]
  - audit_arch == "b64"
  tags:
  - CJIS-5.4.1.1
  - NIST-800-171-3.1.7
  - NIST-800-53-AU-12(c)
  - NIST-800-53-AU-2(d)
  - NIST-800-53-CM-6(a)
  - PCI-DSS-Req-10.5.5
  - PCI-DSSv4-10.3.4
  - audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmod
  - low_complexity
  - low_disruption
  - medium_severity
  - reboot_required
  - restrict_strategy

Rule   Record Events that Modify the System's Discretionary Access Controls - fchmodat   [ref]

At a minimum, the audit system should collect file permission changes for all users and root. If the auditd daemon is configured to use the augenrules program to read audit rules during daemon startup (the default), add the following line to a file with suffix .rules in the directory /etc/audit/rules.d:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the auditd daemon is configured to use the auditctl utility to read audit rules during daemon startup, add the following line to /etc/audit/audit.rules file:
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
If the system is 64 bit then also add the following line:
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S fchmodat -F auid>=1000 -F auid!=unset -F key=perm_mod
Warning:  Note that these rules can be configured in a number of ways while still achieving the desired effect. Here the system calls have been placed independent of other system calls. Grouping these system calls with others as identifying earlier in this guide is more efficient.
Rationale:
The changing of file permissions could indicate that a user is attempting to gain access to information that would otherwise be disallowed. Auditing DAC modifications can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse among both authorized and unauthorized users.
Severity: 
medium
Rule ID:xccdf_org.ssgproject.content_rule_audit_rules_dac_modification_fchmodat
Identifiers and References

References:  1, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 5.4.1.1, APO10.01, APO10.03, APO10.04, APO10.05, APO11.04, APO12.06, APO13.01, BAI03.05, BAI08.02, DSS01.03, DSS01.04, DSS02.02, DSS02.04, DSS02.07, DSS03.01, DSS03.05, DSS05.02, DSS05.03, DSS05.04, DSS05.05, DSS05.07, MEA01.01, MEA01.02, MEA01.03, MEA01.04, MEA01.05, MEA02.01, 3.1.7, CCI-000126, CCI-000130, CCI-000135, CCI-000169, CCI-000172, CCI-002884, 164.308(a)(1)(ii)(D), 164.308(a)(3)(ii)(A), 164.308(a)(5)(ii)(C), 164.312(a)(2)(i), 164.312(b),